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EXIDE INDUSTRIES LTD.

WELCOMES YOU
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

SELECTION OF BATTERIES FOR


GENERATING STATION AND SUBSTATION

• APPLICATION :

- UNIT BATTERY
- SUBSTATION BATTERY
- PLCC
- 24/26v C & I BATTERY
- UPS BATTERY
- BATTERY FOR VHF SETS
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

BATTERY IS CONSIDERED TO BE
THE "HEART" OF THE POWER PLANT

• Battery provides the ultimate and final dc back-up power for


operating emergency equipments which power the turbo
generations (viz : emergency oil pumps, etc.)

• DC power for operation of all switchgear, protection relays, indicating


lamps and facia.

• Power for emergency lighting within the generating station building.

• Uninterrupted power for controlling C & I equipment and associated


ups systems.

• Power for vital communication equipment (plcc), essential for


resynchronising the unit with the grid or for reviving the grid in case
of a major grid failure.
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

WHAT IF THE BATTERY FAILS


IN AN EMERGENCY

• UNIT BATTERY
- The emergency oil pumps will not operate which could lead
to seizure of the rotor bearings

- Loss of hundreds of crores of rupees towards repairing the


rotor and generation revenue loss while the unit is out of
commission.

- Switchgear associated with generator may not trip which


could lead to generating transformer damage

- Failure of instrumentation and control

- Total darkness in the powerhouse


INDUSTRIES LIMITED

• SUBSTATION
- Switchgear and relays will not operate causing
extensive damage to transformers and power lines.

• PLCC
- Extremely difficult to resynchronise the unit with
grid.
- Major setback in the process of reviving the grid in
the event of a regional grid failure.

- If the battery fails while the unit is in operation, it


may become essential to shutdown.
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

THE SINGLE MOST IMPORT FEATURE OF


BATTERIES FOR POWER SECTOR APPLICATION IS

• RELIABILITY

- RELIABLE STANDBY POWER SOURCE

- DELIVER POWER AS AND WHEN CALLED FOR

- FULL CAPACITY AT ANY POINT OF TIME IN SERVICE LIFE

- PREDICTABILITY
WHAT IS A BATTERY ?

A BATTERY IS AN ARRAY OF
SIMILAR ELECTRICAL
STORAGE CELLS
What is an Electrical Storage Cell ?

AN ELECTRICAL STORAGE CELL CONSISTS OF TWO DISSIMILAR


ELECTRODES IMMERSED IN AN ELECTROLYTE.

IT STORES ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN FORM OF CHEMICAL ENERGY.

WHEN THE CIRCUIT IS MADE BETWEEN ITS POSITIVE & NEGATIVE


ELECTRODES, THERE IS A CHEMICAL REACTION IN THE CELL AND IT
DELIVERS ELECTRICITY-DIRECT CURRENT (D.C) THROUGH THE
CIRCUIT.
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

FAMILY TREE OF ELECTRICAL STORAGE CELLS

Primary Cell Secondary Cell

Litihium Ammonium Silver Alkaline Lead Acid


Oxide Chloride Oxide Cells Cells

Ni Cad NiFe

SLI or Industrial
Automotive

Standby Motive Power

VRLA Fiat Pasted Tubular Plante Traction Train Diesel EMU


Lighting Starter
WHAT IS A LEAD ACID BATTERY
BASIC ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION PARTICIPANTS :

_ + POSITIVE ELECTRODE : PbO2

NEGATIVE ELECTRODE : Pb
LEAD DIOXIDE
SOFT LEAD

ELECTROLYTE : H2SO4

H2S04 - ELECTROLYTE
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

HOW DOES A LEAD ACID BATTERY WORK ?

Charged Discharged

+ve -ve electrolyte +ve -ve


Pbo2 + Pb + 2H2SO4 PbSO4 + PbSO4 + 2H2O
Lead Spongy Dilute Lead Lead Water
peroxide Lead Sulphuric Sulphate Sulphate
Acid
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

TYPES OF PLATES
A. Positive
l Plante’ Type : Cast out of 99.99% pure Lead
Has a fine lamaellar structure
l Flat Pasted Type : Grid holds the active material and
carries the current
l Tubular Type : Red lead (Pb3O4) and Grey oxide (PbO)
mixture is filled in tubes and spine of lead-
alloy runs through the centre of entire tube
length. Tube retails the active material
firmly and spine carries the current
B. Negative
l Flat pasted type always
PASTED PLATES

CHARGE / DISCHARGE CYCLES


FAILURE BY SHEDDING
MAXIMUM 200 CYCLES
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

FEATURES OF AUTOMOTIVE
FLAT PLATE

* GRID - (CURRENT COLLECTOR) CAST


INTO A LATTICE STRUCTURE

* ACTIVE MATERIAL - PASSED ON TO THE LATTICE

SUITED FOR :

* HIGH CURRENT DISCHARGE

* SHORT BACKUP TIME (SHALLOW) DISCHARGE

* NON-CYCLIC APPLICATION
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

X
Y
LUG

TUBE

BOTTOM BAR
Y
CONSTRUCTION OF TUBULAR
POSITIVE PLATE
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

RESIN SHEATH

SPINE (LEAD ALLOY)


SPINE

ACTIVE MATERIAL
ACTIVE MATERIAL (LEAD OXIDE)

TUBE TUBE
RESIN CURED
(TERYLENE GAUNTLET)

BOTTOM BAR

SECTION – ‘YY’ SECTION – ‘XX’

CONSTRUCTION OF TUBULAR POSITIVE PLATE (contd.)


INDUSTRIES LIMITED

FEATURES OF TUBULAR POSITIVE

* GRID - CAST IN THE FORM OF A


SERIES OF RODS (SPINES)
ATTACHED TO A COMMON
BAR

* ACTIVE MATERIAL - PHYSICALLY PACKED AROUND


SPINE AND RETAINED IN POSITION
BY A SYNTHETIC MATERIAL
JACKET (GAUNTLET)

SUITED FOR :

* EXTENDED BACKUP TIME (DEEP) DISCHARGE

* CYCLIC (REPEATED CHARGE – DISCHARGE)


APPLICATION
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

FEATURES OF PLANTE’ POSITIVE

* GRID / PLATE - CAST OF 99.99% PURE LEAD

* ACTIVE MATERIAL - NO EXTERNALLY INCORPORATED


ACTIVE MATERIAL SURFACE LAYER
OF GRID ITSELF CONVERTED TO
ACTIVE MATERIAL.

SUITED FOR :

* HIGH CURRENT DISCHARGES FOR SHORT BACKUP TIME

* HIGHEST RELIABILITY IN TERMS OF ZERO DEGRADATION


OVER A LONG SERVICE LIFE
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

EXIDE PLANTE’ FEATURES

* HIGH DISCHARGE VOLTAGE PROFILE

* QUICK RECHARGE

* LOW – LOW MAINTENANCE

* NO PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION

* EASY MONITORING

* CLEAN ENVIRONMENT

* EXTENDED LIFE

* HIGH SALVAGE VALUE


INDUSTRIES LIMITED

ADVANTAGE PLANTE’

* HIGHER ENERGY OUTPUT COMPARED TO TUBULAR

- LOWER CAPACITY PLANTE CELLS MEET GIVEN


APPLICATION

- PLANTE BATTERIES GIVE ABOUT 90% MORE


ENERGY OUTPUT THAN TUBULAR OF SAME
CAPACITY WHEN DISCHARGED AT 3 HR. RATE UPTO
1.90 V.P.C.
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

ADVANTAGE PLANTE’

* VERY LOW MAINTENANCE / TOPPING UP FREQUENCY

- WITH CERAMIC VENT PLUGS, YHP RANGE REQUIRE


TOPPING UP ONCE IN 18 MONTHS

- TUBULARS NEED TOPPING UP ONCE IN 2 MONTHS


INDUSTRIES LIMITED

ADVANTAGE PLANTE’

* CAPABLE OF RAPID RECHARGING

- DUE TO LOWER INTERNAL RESISTANCE

- LARGE SURFACE AREA

- LIBERAL AMOUNT OF ELECTROLYTE

- AFTER DEEP DISCHARGE, MAXIMUM RATE OF 0.25 X


C10 UPTO 2.4 VOLTS PER CELL
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

ADVANTAGE PLANTE’
* 100% CAPACITY RETENTION DURING LIFE SPAN

- CAPACITY APPRECIATES DURING LIFE AS


FOLLOWS :-

NEW CELL UPTO 5 YEARS UPTO 8 YEARS 12 YEARS

100% 110% 115% 125%

IN THE CASE OF OTHER BATTERIES

- THERE IS A CONSTANT DEGRADATION OF CAPACITY


THROUGHOUT SERVICE LIFE

- MAXIMUM 20% DEGRADATION BY END OF SERVICE


LIFE

- NECESSITATES ADDITION OF DEGRADATION


FACTOR DURING DESIGN STAGE
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

ADVANTAGE PLANTE’

* VISUAL ASSURANCE OF BATTERY’S HEALTH

- TRANSPARENT CONTAINERS, EASY INSPECTION


AND MAINTENANCE – TOTALLY RELIABLE

- OTHER BATTERIES HAVE OPAQUE / TRANSLUCENT


CONTAINERS – PREVENTS VISUAL MONITORING,
AND CAN LEAD TO SUDDEN FAILURES DURING
EMERGENCY DUE TO OPEN CIRCUIT / SHORT
CIRCUITS
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

EXIDE PLANTE’ CELLS


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

* CONFORMS TO IS 1652

* HIGH PERFORMANCE PLANTE POSITIVE PLATES

* PASTED NEGATIVE PLATES

* MICROPOROUS RIBBED SEPERATORS

* TRANSPARENT ‘SAN’ CONTAINERS

* MOISTURE ARRESTING AND EXPLOSION PROOF


MICROPOROUS VENT PLUG.
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

EXIDE PLANTE’ RANGE

PLANTE’ RANGE COMES IN 2V


CONFIGURATION ONLY

* YAMP SERIES : 16 Ah – 64 Ah

* YKP SERIES : 75 Ah – 400 Ah

* YHP SERIES : 535 Ah – 2250 Ah


MAINTENANCE

• TOPPING UP

• CHARGING

• CHECKING & CLEANING OF


TERMINALS

IN A LEAD ACID BATTERY, CHARGING &


CLEANING / CHECKING OF TERMINALS
CANNOT BE AVOIDED.
TOPPING UP

WATER LOSS

ELECTROLYSIS EVAPORATION

DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
TO ANTIMONY CONTENT IN
THE PLATE
LOW MAINTENANCE
(HOW IT IS ACHIEVED)

• LOW ANTIMONY ALLOY-


LESS ELECTROLYSIS – LESS WATER LOSS

• MICROPOROUS VENT PLUG

• BIGGER CONTAINER WITH MORE


ELECTROLYTE / HIGH ACID HEAD ROOM
AQUA TRAP VENT PLUG
SMF BATTERIES-OPERATION

• NO FREE ELECTROLYTE ELECTROLYTE IS ABSORBED IN


GLASS MAT SEPARATORS

• INSUFFICIENT BUOYANCY FOR OZYGEN GAS TO TRAVEL


UPWARD BY NEGATIVE GRAVITATION

• OXYGEN TRAVELS HORIZONTALLY & REACHES NEGATIVE


PLATE TO REACT WITH METALLIC LEAD.
VENTING ARRANGEMENT FOR
A VRLA BATTERY
THE SEALED MAINTENANCE
FREE ‘VRLA’ RANGE

• BATTERY IS DELIVERED READY TO USE

• NO TOPPING-UP REQUIRED EVER

• ZERO EMISSION UNDER NORMAL


CHARGING CONDITIONS
• COMPACT

• EASY TO HANDLE
VULNERABILITIES
• HIGH TEMPERATURE

• DEEP DISCHARGE

• CYCLING

• CHAGER SENSITIVE

• RECOVERY FROM OVERDISCHARGE

• UNPREDICTABILITY
SELECTION CRITERIA OF A BATTERY

• PRIMARY FACTORS

• CURRENT LOAD

• BACKUP TIME

• MINIMUM VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS OF


THE SYSTEM

• THE LOWEST EXPCETED OPERATING


TEMPERATURE.
SELECTION CRITERIA OF A BATTERY

• SECONDARY FACTORS
• EXPECTED FREQUENCY OF DISCHARGE
• DEPTH OF DISCHARGE
• AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
• METHOD OF CHARGING, CONSTRAINT IF ANY
• LIMITATION ON SPACE
• MAINTENANCE LIMITATIONS
• FLOOR LOADING
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

Nominal Voltage
Tubular 2V
VRLA 2V
Plante 2V
Ni-Cd 1.2V, 183 cells of Ni-Cd are required for a 220V
system where 110 cells of Lead Acid are used
Sensivity to overcharge & undercharge
Tubular Quite Sensitive
VRLA Very Sensitive
Plante Quite Sensitive
Ni-Cd Moderately Sensitive
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

DISCHARGE PEREORMANCE

Tubular Standard
VRLA Best
Plante Much superior to HDP Tubular but slightly
inferior to VRLA
Ni-Cd Superior to Plante for very short duration (3 sec
& below) but inferior Plante for longer duration
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

RECHARGE
Tubular Capable of quick recharge by boost
charging upto 2.7vpc and 0.14 C10 Amps recharge
current
VRLA Quick recharge limited to fast charging upto
2.4vpc and Amps limit current
Plante Very fast recharge by boost charging upto
2.7vpc and 0.25 C10 Amps recharge current
Ni-Cd Capable of very fast recharge, however
charge retention is relatively poor
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HIGH TEMPERATURE


NDP Tubular Satisfactory operations upto 48/50 C electrolytic
temperature
VRLA Prolonged operation at high ambient temperature
curtail battery life severely.
Plante Satisfactory operations upto 48/50 C electrolytic
temperature
Ni-Cd Satisfactory operations upto 48/50 C electrolytic
temperature
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

Attributes Tubular VRLA Plante Ni-Cd

Operating 17.5% of 25% of 20% of 17.5%


Voltage band Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal
Voltage Voltage Voltage Voltage

Space High Low High High


Requirements

Thermal Hardly Very Hardly Hardly


Runaway susceptible susceptible susceptible susceptible
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

Discharge at float operations


Tubular Satisfactory
VRLA Best
Plante Satisfactory
Ni-Cd Ni-Cd does not give full capacity when
discharged after remaining on float for a long
time. In order to obtain the desired capacity,
the capacity of the battery needs to be
increased by 35%
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

MONITORING STATE OF CHARGE

Tubular Can be done by measuring electrolyte


specific gravity
VRLA Cannot be determined externally, acts as a
black box
Plante Others than measuring electrolytic specific
gravity, battery condition can be monitored
visually through the transparent containers
NI-CD Cannot be determined externally acts as a
black box
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

AGEING
Tubular Degrades gradually during service life & falls to about
80% in 8-10 years. 25% capacity has to be increased
to compensate for ageing
VRLA Degrades gradually during service life & falls to about
80% in 10-15 years. 25% capacity has to be increased
to compensate for ageing
Plante Plante capacity does not 100%
PLANTE
NI-CD
drop rather increases in
service life
Capacity
80% —
TUBULAR
Ni-Cd Capacity remains almost VRLA

constant during service life

10 20
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

RELIABILITY
Tubular Quite reliable
VRLA Generally reliable however prone to unexpected
malfunctioning
Plante Most reliable in float operations
Ni-Cd Reliable during routing duty cycles however
prone to unexpected malfunctioning during
emergency requirement
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

Life Expectancy
Tubular 10-12 years 20

L ife in ye a r
VRLA 10-15 years 15

Plante 15-20 years


10

HDP Tubular 10-12 years


Ni-Cd 15-20 years Tubular VRLA Plante Ni-Cd

Internal Resistance
NDP Tubular Highest

Internal Resistance
VRLA Lowest
Plante 30-40% lower than
equivalent HDP
Tubular Cells
Ni-Cd Average Tubular VRLA Plante Ni-Cd
TECHNICAL COMPARISON

TOPPING UP REQUIREMENT

Tubular Toping up upto 3-4 times in a year


VRLA No topping up required
Plante Topping up once in 12-18 months
Ni-Cd Topping up once a year. Existing electrolyte
needs to be changed every 7/8 years
Auto-fill System Removes The Need of Topping Up
4

Routine maintenance is

N o . o f t im e s / y e a r
3

Required for all categories for


batteries 2

1
MYTHS OF VRLA BATTERIES ?

MYTH 1 — VRLA BATTERIES REQUIRE NO


MAINTENANCE
REALITY
As per Clause No. 5.7 of IEEE 1189 – 1996
l “By the very nature of the designs of VRLA cells, specific
gravity readings and water additions are not practical.
Consequency, the batteries are often referred to as
maintenance free. However, this is true only with respect to
the electrolyte. Otherwise, VRLA Battery Maintenance is
similar to that required for flooded batteries”.
l There exists and IEEE standard [IEEE 1188-1996] which is
dedicated for maintenance and testing of VRLA batteries.
MYTHS OF VRLA BATTERIES ?

MYTH 2 — VRLA BATTERIES CAN BE USED IN


TROPICAL CLIMATES AT HIGH
TEMPERATURES WITHOUT ANY
ADVERSE EFFECTS
REALITY
As per Clause No. B3 of Annexure B of IEEE 1188 – 1996
“As a general rule, continuous prolonged use at elevated
temperatures will reduce the battery life by approximately
one-half for every 8°C above 25°C that VRLA batteries
operate. This effect can be mitigated to some extent by the
use of temperature – compensated charges. Operation at
elevated temperatures can also lead to thermal runaway”.
MYTHS OF VRLA BATTERIES ?

MYTH 3 — VRLA BATTERIES ARE AS PRONE TO


THERMAL RUNWAY AS OTHER
LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
REALITY
As per Clause No. 5.1 of IEEE 1187 – 1996
“While all batteries are susceptible to thermal runaway, VRLA
batteries are more sensitive to the conditions that lead to thermal
runaway”
As per Annexure A of IEEE 1187-1996
“In the gelled electrolyte system, the gel has intimate contact with
the plates and container walls and provides better heat dissipation
characteristics than the absorbed electrolyte system, but not as
good as flooded system”
MYTHS OF VRLA BATTERIES ?

MYTH 4 — VRLA BATTERIES HAVE THE SAME


FAILURE MECHANISMS AS FLOODED
REALITY
As per Clause No. 5.3 of IEEE 1189 – 1996
“The familiar failure mechanisms of positive plate corrosion and
growth, active material failure, post seal leakage and
container/cover seal leakage associated with vented cells are also
present in VRLA cells. However in VRLA cell, the effects of leakage
at the post and/or container cover seals are more significant than in
vented cells.
VRLA cells are susceptible to two failure modes that are normally
not associated with vented cells. These are dryout and thermal
runaway”
WHY THEN VRLA ?

TELECOMMUNICATIONS & UPS APPLICATIONS


PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES SECONDARY
REQUIREMENT

l Small Foot Print

l No Emissions

l No Maintenance
POWER STATIONS

PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES REQUIRED


l Reliability
- Deliver Power as and when called for full
capacity at any point of time in service life
l Predictability
n Health
n Impending failure
n Expected time of replacement
n Time Tested
n Life
APPLICATION
OUR RECOMMENDATION

NDP TUBULAR VRLA


Ideal for frequent For relatively
Charge / Short time backup with
discharge moderate depth of
cycling duties discharge

PLANTE
Ideal for meeting duty
cycle in float operation

HDP TUBULAR NI-CD


Ideal for frequent Can be used in high
charge/discharge rate of discharge in
cycling duties abusive conditions
THE TRADE-OFF

There is no lead acid battery with


the best product attributes in all the
categories of attributes

A trade-off has to be made for


each application segment considering the
requirements of that segments

Best battery for Best battery for


power application - Telecom application -
PLANTE VRLA
INDUSTRIES LIMITED

PRICE COMPARISON FOR DIFFERENT TYPES


OF LEAD ACID BATTERIES FOR
A GIVEN APPLICATION (220V D. C.)

BATTERY CAPACITY PRICE SCRAP REBATE NET PRICE RELATIVE


TYPE AH RS LACS RS LACS RS LACS PRICING

PLANTE (3000AH) 3000 92 3 89 1

TUBULAR (3500AH) 3500 54 2 52 0.6

VRLA (4000AH) 4000 66 2.5 63.5 0.7