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# Theory of Automata

Lecture – 2
Regular Expression
Recursive definition of Regular Expression(RE)

## • Step 1: Every letter of Σ including Λ is a

regular expression.
• Step 2: If r1 and r2 are regular expressions then
• (r1)
• r1 r2 or r2 r1
• r1 + r2 or r2 + r1
• r1* or r2*
are also regular expressions.
• Step 3: Nothing else is a regular expression.
Example
• Now consider another language L, consisting of all
possible strings, defined over Σ = {a, b}. This language
can also be expressed by the regular expression
(a + b)*

## • Now consider another language L, of strings having

exactly double a, having any number of b’s defined
over Σ = {a, b}, then it’s regular expression may be
b*aab*
Example
• Now consider another language L, of even length,
defined over Σ = {a, b}, then it’s regular expression
may be
((a+b)(a+b))*

## • Now consider another language L, of odd length,

defined over Σ = {a, b}, then it’s regular expression
may be

(a+b)((a+b)(a+b))* or
((a+b)(a+b))*(a+b)
Remark

## • It may be noted that a language may be expressed by

more than one regular expressions, while given a
regular expression there exist a unique language
generated by that regular expression.
Example
• Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of words
having at least one a, may be expressed by a regular
expression
(a+b)*a(a+b)*

## • Consider the language, defined over Σ = {a, b} of words

having at least one a and one b, may be expressed by
a regular expression

(a+b)*a(a+b)*b(a+b)* + (a+b)*b(a+b)*a(a+b)*
Example
• Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b}, of
words starting with double a and ending in double b
then its regular expression may be
aa(a+b)*bb

## • Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of

words starting with a and ending in b OR starting
with b and ending in a, then its regular expression
may be
a(a+b)*b+b(a+b)*a
Practice – Regular Expression ?
• Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of words beginning
with a

## • Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of words ending in b

Practice – Regular Expression ?

## • Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of words beginning

and ending in same letter

## • Consider the language, defined over Σ={a, b} of words not ending in

a
An important Example
The Language EVEN-EVEN :
• Language of strings, defined over Σ={a, b} having even
number of a’s and even number of b’s. i.e.
EVEN-EVEN = {Λ, aa, bb, aaaa,aabb,abab, abba, baab,
baba, bbaa, bbbb,…},

## Its regular expression can be written as

( aa + bb + (ab+ba)(aa+bb)*(ab+ba) )*
Note

## • It is important to be clear about the difference of the

following regular expressions

• r1=a*+b*
• r2=(a+b)*

## • Here r1 does not generate any string of concatenation

of a and b, while r2 generates such strings.
Equivalent Regular Expressions
• Definition: Two regular expressions are said to be
equivalent if they generate the same language.
• Example: Consider the following regular expressions
• r1= (a + b)* (aa + bb)
• r2= (a + b)*aa + ( a + b)*bb then
both regular expressions define the language of
strings ending in aa or bb.
Note
• If r1 =(aa + bb) and r2 =( a + b) then

1. r1 + r2 =(aa + bb) + (a + b)
2. r1 r2 = (aa + bb) (a + b) = (aaa + aab + bba + bbb)
3. (r1)* =(aa + bb)*
Regular Languages
• Definition:

## • The language generated by any regular expression is

called a regular language.
Note
• It is to be noted that if r1, r2 are regular expressions,
corresponding to the languages L1 and L2 then the
languages generated by r1 + r2 , r1r2 ( or r2 r1) and
r1*( or r2*) are also regular languages.
Example

## • If r1=(aa+bb) and r2=(a+b) then the language of strings

generated by r1+ r2, is also a regular language,
expressed by (aa+bb)+(a+b)
• If r1=(aa+bb) and r2=(a+b) then the language of
strings generated by r1r2, is also a regular language,
expressed by (aa+bb)(a+b)
• If r=(aa+bb) then the language of strings generated by
r*, is also a regular language, expressed by (aa+bb)*
All finite languages are regular
• Example:

## Consider the language L, defined over Σ={a,b}, of

strings of length 2, starting with a, then
L={aa, ab}, may be expressed by the regular
expression aa+ab.

## Hence L, by definition, is a regular language.

Note
• It may be noted that if a language contains even
thousand words, its RE may be expressed, placing ‘ + ’
between all the words.

## • Consider the language L={aaa, aab, aba, abb, baa, bab,

bba, bbb}, that may be expressed by a RE
aaa+aab+aba+abb+baa+bab+bba+bbb, which is
equivalent to (a+b)(a+b)(a+b).
Finite Automata
Defining Languages (continued)…
Method 4 (Finite Automaton)
• Definition:
A Finite automaton (FA), is a collection of the followings
1. Finite number of states, having one initial and some (may
be none) final states.
2. Finite set of input letters (Σ) from which input strings are
formed.
3. Finite set of transitions i.e. for each state and for each
input letter there is a transition showing how to move
from one state to another.
Example
• Σ = {a,b}
• States: x, y, z where x is an initial state and z is final state.
• Transitions:
1. At state x reading a go to state z,
2. At state x reading b go to state y,
3. At state y reading a, b go to state y
4. At state z reading a, b go to state z
Example Continued …
• These transitions can be expressed by the following table called
transition table
Note
• It may be noted that the information of an FA, given
in the previous table, can also be depicted by the
following diagram, called the transition diagram, of
the given FA
Remark
• The previous transition diagram is an FA accepting the language of
strings, defined over Σ={a, b}, starting with a. It may be noted that
this language may be expressed by the regular expression

a (a + b)*
Note
• It may be noted that to indicate the initial state, an
arrow head can also be placed before that state and
that the final state with double circle, as shown
below. It is also to be noted that while expressing an
FA by its transition diagram, the labels of states are
not necessary.
Example
Σ = {a,b}

## States: x, y, where x is both initial and final state.

Transitions:
1. At state x reading a or b go to state y.
2. At state y reading a or b go to state x.
Example Continued …
• These transitions can be expressed by the following transition table
Example Continued …
• It may be noted that the previous transition table may be depicted by
the following transition diagram.
Example Continued …
• The previous transition diagram is an FA accepting the language of
strings, defined over Σ={a, b} of even length. It may be noted that this
language may be expressed by the regular expression
((a+ b) (a + b))*

## • Build an FA for the language L of strings, defined over

Σ={a, b}, of odd length.
Example
• Consider the language L of strings, defined over Σ={a,
b}, starting with b. The language L may be expressed
by RE b(a + b)* , may be accepted by the following FA
Example:
• Consider the language L of strings, defined over Σ={a, b}, ending in a.
The language L may be expressed by RE (a+b)*a

## • This language may be accepted by the following FA

Example Continued …

## • There may be another FA corresponding to the given

language.
Example continued …
Note

## • It may be noted that corresponding to a given

language there may be more than one FA accepting
that language, but for a given FA there is a unique
language accepted by that FA.
Note
• It is to be noted that given the languages L1 and L2
,where
• L1 = The language of strings, defined over Σ={a, b},
beginning with a
• L2 = The language of strings, defined over Σ={a,
b}, not beginning with b

## • The  does not belong to L1 while it does belong to L2.

This fact may be depicted by the corresponding
transition diagrams of L1 and L2.
FA1 Corresponding to L1

## • The language L1 may be expressed by the regular

expression a(a + b)*
FA2 Corresponding to L2

## • The language L2 may be expressed by the regular

expression a (a + b)* + Λ
Example
• Consider the Language L of Strings of length two or
more, defined over Σ = {a, b}, beginning with and
ending in same letters.
• The language L may be expressed by the following
regular expression
a (a + b)* a + b (a + b)* b
• It is to be noted that if the condition on the length of
string is not imposed in the above language then the
strings a and b will then belong to the language.

## • This language L may be accepted by the following FA

Example Continued …
Example

## • Consider the Language L of Strings , defined over Σ =

{a, b}, beginning with and ending in different letters.

## • The language L may be expressed by the following

regular expression
a (a + b)* b + b (a + b)* a

## • This language may be accepted by the following FA

Example Continued …
Example
• Consider the Language L , defined over
Σ = {a, b} of all strings including Λ, The language L
may be accepted by the following FA

## • The language L may also be accepted by the following

FA
Example Continued …

## • The language L may be expressed by the following regular expression

(a + b)*
Example
• Consider the Language L , defined over Σ = {a,
b} of all non empty strings. The language L may be
accepted by the following FA

## • The above language may be expressed by the

following regular expression (a + b)+
Example
• Consider the following FA, defined over Σ = {a,
b}

## • It is to be noted that the above FA does not accept

any string. Even it does not accept the null string. As
there is no path starting from initial state and ending
in final state.
Equivalent FAs

## • It is to be noted that two FAs are said to be equivalent, if they accept

the same language, as shown in the following FAs.
Equivalent FAs Continued …
• FA1

• FA2

• FA3
Note (Equivalent FAs)
• FA1 has already been discussed, while in FA2, there is
no final state and in FA3, there is a final state but FA3
is disconnected as the states 2 and 3 are
disconnected.

## • It may also be noted that the language (empty

language) of strings accepted by FA1 , FA2 and FA3 is
denoted by the empty set i.e.
{ } OR Ø
Example

## • Consider the Language L of strings , defined over Σ =

{a, b}, containing double a.

## • The language L may be expressed by the following

regular expression
(a+b)* (aa) (a+b)*

## • This language may be accepted by the following FA

Example Continued …