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SITE ENGINEERING

Stephen Williams, Radio Development


3G Radio Site
Installation
• 3G radio cabinet
• Associated Power Supply
• Decision Flow Chart - how to upgrade to 3G
• Installation in large legacy site
• Installation in 3.6/4.8m cabins
• Installation in 2.4 Cabins and other small sites
• Installation of all new BTS sites
3G Radio Cabinet
• 3G radio cabinet operates
from 48V pos ground (-48V)
– standard for transmission
/network equipment.
• All Vodafone analogue and
GSM radio to date has
operated from 24V neg.
Ground.
3G Radio Cabinet
• Reasons for -48V use:
• High Linearity Required from
Transmitter Power Amplifier
• Current consumption will be
lower allowing use of smaller
gauge DC power cable
• Total Power consumption for
2+2+2 configuration approx.
5kW (100A at 48V).
3G Radio Cabinet
Radio Configurations:
• 1+1+1 3 cell; 1 Radio
Channel per cell
• 2+2+2 3 cell; 2 Radio
Channels per cell
• 3+3+3 3 cell; 3 Radio
Channels per cell.
Configured by suiting
2+2+2 and 1+1+1.
-48V PSU
• 48V positive ground
• 8000 Watts (
approx 160A )
• Battery capacity 4 x
40Ah = 160Ah (at 3
hour discharge
rate)
-48V PSU Alternative?
24V to -48V DC-DC converter
• Could retain existing legacy 24V power
supplies and use converter to derive -48V
for 3G radio.
• This converter 80% of cost of new -48V
PSU.
• Converter not as efficient as -48V PSU
thus increasing overall power
consumption and increasing heat
dissipation in radio room.
• Converter is a potential additional point of
system failure.
• Legacy 24V power supplies will become
increasingly difficult to maintain.
Site Types for 3G Radio
Upgrade
• Legacy site with analogue radio
• GSM only installation - typically
3.6m x 2.4m cabin
• Small cabin 2.4m x 2.4m
• Future new sites
• Outdoor cabinets
3G Radio Installation
Decision Flow Chart

L
Does Site requires
Will 24V Will GSM
space exist floorspace
PSU upgrade BTS upgrade
for 3G radio N create
N N expansion.
create
and floorspace floorspace Or new site
-48V PSU? required? required? acquisition
required.

Y Y Y

Install 3G Upgrade 24V


Upgrade GSM
radio PSU and
BTS to –48V
and –48V install 3G N
configured
PSU radio and –
system.
48V PSU
Install -48V PSU
and 3G radio.
Large Legacy Site (with
TACS)
• Floor space will be available to add 3G
radio cabinet and associated -48 Volt PSU.
• Space will either be already available (in
the larger sites) or will be made by removal
of TACS radio cabinets from May 2001.
Large Legacy Site (with
TACS)
-48V PSU

3G RADIO CAB.
GSM CABS. G
3G
RAD
G G
CAB
TACS CABS. G GT
T T T

SITE 14 - SULHAMPSTEAD
3.6m x 2.4 m cabin
• Upgrade 24V PSU to
24V -48V
POWEC POWEC more space efficient
type.
3G RADIO CAB.
3G
RAD
• In space created by
CAB
24V PSU upgrade,
install -48V PSU.
• Install 3G radio
cabinet.
2.4m x 2.4 m cabin
This site
has 2 TACS
cabinets and
1 RBS200
GSM cabinet,
AND H&S 24V
PSU.

All this equipment


must be removed.
2.4m x 2.4 m cabin
-48V PSU

NET
CAB -48V GSM RBS2202
3G RADIO CAB. or RBS2206 RADIO
CABS.
3G GSM GSM
GSM
Outdoor cabinets
• There may be an outdoor 3G radio
cabinet option available if required.
• Currently there is no intention to deploy
any 3G outdoor cabinets in the first
phases of rollout.
• This option will be addressed if/when
Network Implementation have a
requirement.
New Sites Proposal
• All new GSM installations to be completely 48V
working.
• -48V PSUs to be procured in place of 24V PSUs.
• RBS2202 GSM radio cabinet sales objects to be
procured as -48 Volt variant.
• This will give upgrade path for -48V working 3G
radio with no power supply complications.
• It is proposed that the new site -48V build will
commence as soon as possible.
Assumptions/Risks
• The analogue (TACS) radio system is expected to
commence decommissioning in May 2001; this will be
essential to create floor space for 3G radio in many
sites.
• The 12 TRU GSM radio cabinet, RBS2206, is
expected to be available Q3 2001. This will be required
to compact the GSM radio equipment in certain sites to
create floor space.
• A quantity of redundant equipment will be generated
where PSU or GSM radio swaps are required to free
floor space. This will need managing.
Summary
• Standard installation of 3G radio will
comprise standalone -48V DC power system
and 3G radio cabinet.
• Where floor space is limited, older PSU
cabinets can be upgraded or GSM radio can be
upgraded to create space for 3G system.
• In extreme cases of floor space restriction,
ALL existing 24V radio and power equipment
will require replacing.
• No solution for existing outdoor cabinet sites.
3G ANTENNA SYSTEM
3G ANTENNA SYSTEM
There are four possible configurations for realising the
3G antenna system.

• For each cell an independent single band 3G antenna


with dedicated feeder cable.
• An independent single band antenna sharing existing
feeder cable with GSM antennas.
• A tri-band (900/1800 MHz and 3G) antenna with
dedicated feeder cable for 3G.
• A tri-band antenna also sharing feeder cable with GSM
antennas.
3G Configuration Type 1
• This is the use of a Dual Band Antenna for GSM 900 & 1800 ( 2G) and
a separate antenna for 3G and is the preferred option.
This allows :
• Separate downtilt control of each system - downtilt is vital to 3G system
optimisation.
• The use of smaller, ‘off the shelf’, single band 3G Tower Mounted
Amplifiers.
• Minimises system RF losses for 2G and 3G systems.
• Provides no single point of failure for the 2G and 3G systems.

This is in line with the existing policy of deploying 2 antennas and


4 feeder cables per cell, and compatible support structures,
wherever practicable.
Configuration 1; 2 antennas and 4 feeder cables per cell
UMTS
Dual band 900/1800MHz
cross polar antenna Single band antenna

Top of tower
TMA TMA
TYPE 1 TYPE 1

Feeder run

D D
I I
Cabin P P

h hh h
18 18
UMTS UMTS
GSM 900 1800 900 1800
2 port 3G TMA
Antenna

Diplexer

UMTS TMA Type 1


LNA

Diplexer

Feeder
3G Configuration Type 2
If it is impossible to achieve 4 feeders per cell
a configuration of 2 antennas per cell and 2
feeders per cell may be used.

This configuration maintains the use of a Dual


Band Antenna for GSM 900 & 1800 (2G) and
a separate for 3G, allowing separate downtilt
control of each system.
3G Configuration Type 2
As the 2 feeders must be shared between the 2G & 3G systems
a Triplexer and a more complicated TMA must be used.
This has the following consequences:
•Increased uplink and downlink losses on both 2G & 3G.
•2G & 3G systems have common points of failure in the TMA,
Triplexer and feeders.
•Increased risk of interference due to Passive Intermodulation
Products generated within the shared components.
•A Triplexer unit is required, which puts additional loss in the
3G paths.
•The required TMA unit, when compared to the one required by
configuration 1,contains additional filtering and thus has greater
losses, is larger, heavier, more difficult to mount and more
expensive.
Configuration 2; 2 antennas and 2 feeders per
Dual Polar
cell
UMTS single band antenna
900/
1800MHz
Antenna

Top of tower
TMA TMA
TYPE 2 TYPE 2

Feeder run

T T
R R
Cabin I I

h h h h
18 18

GSM 900 1800 UMTS 900 1800 UMTS


3 port 3G TMA
900/1800MHz UMTS single
Dual Band Ant. band antenna

UMTS Diplexer
TMA
UMTS
Type 2
UMTS Diplexer

900/
1800MHz
Diplexer UMTS

Feeder
3G Configuration Type 3
If it is impossible to use 2 antennas per cell, than
a configuration of 1 antenna & 4 feeders per cell
may be used.

This configuration uses a Tri-band, 4 port antenna.


The antenna has a pair of ports for combined GSM
900 & 1800 (2G) use and a separate pair of ports
for 3G.
3G Configuration Type 3
(cont.)
The use of this configuration has the following
consequences:
•The use of a single antenna removes the capability to
separately downtilt the 2G & 3G systems
•2G & 3G systems have common points of failure.
•The Tri-band, 4 port antenna is physically larger, heavier and
has greater windloading than those previously developed by
Vodafone.
•The absolute RF performance of this antenna will inevitably be
compromised with existing single and dual band antennas.
•This item will be a Vodafone specific item and will have a
development risk associated with it.
Configuration 3; 1 antenna & 4 feeders per cell
Tri-band antenna

Top of tower
TMA TMA
TYPE 1 TYPE 1

Feeder run

D D
I I
P P
Cabin
h h h h
18 18

GSM 900 1800 UMTS 900 1800 UMTS


3G Configuration Type 4
If it is only possible to achieve a 1 antenna and 2 feeders per cell
the following configuration will have to be used.

The use of this configuration has the following


consequences and must be regarded as a last
resort.

•The use of a single antenna removes the capability to separately


downtilt the 2G and 3G systems.
•Maximum uplink and downlink losses on both 2G and 3G of all the
configurations offered.
•2G and 3G systems have common points of failure - antenna,TMA
feeder and Triplexer.
•Increased risk of inter-system interference due to Passive
Intermodulation Products generated within the shared components
3G Configuration Type 4
(cont.)
•The Tri-band, 4 port antenna is physically larger, heavier and has
greater windloading than those previously developed by Vodafone

•The absolute RF performance of the Tri-band 4 port antenna will


inevitably be compromised when compared with existing single
and dual band antennas.
•This antenna will be a Vodafone specific item and thus has an
associated development risk.
•A Triplexer unit is required , which puts additional loss in the 3G
paths.The required TMA unit, when compared to the one required
by configuration 1,contains additional filtering and thus has greater
losses, is larger, heavier, more difficult to mount, more expensive.
•This TMA will be a Vodafone specific item and thus has an
associated development risk.
Configuration 4; 1 antenna & feeders per
Tri-band antenna
cell

Top of tower
TMA TMA
TYPE 2 TYPE 2

Feeder run

T T
R R
I I
Cabin
h h h h
18 18

GSM 900 1800 UMTS 900 1800 UMTS


Summary
• Ideally a separate 3G antenna per cell is to be used with
dedicated feeders for the 3G antenna. 3G system to always
have Tower Mounted Receive Amplifier. (TMA type 1).
• Feeders used for analogue antennas should be considered
for re-use for this purpose.
• Where no additional feeders can be installed, the use of
TMA Type 2 allows 900MHz, 1800MHz and 3G to share a
common feeder.
• If no additional antennas can be installed, a tri-band 4 port
antenna is proposed. Additional feeders (2 per cell) required
for this realisation.
• If no additional antennas OR feeders can be installed, the
use of the tri-band antenna and TMA type 2 is possible. This
however has many disadvantages and is a last resort.