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3G Fundamentals

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14 April 2019 Company Confidential 1
WCDMA – FDD technology

Multiple access technology is wideband CDMA (WCDMA)

All cells at same carrier frequency

Spreading codes used to separate cells and users


Signal bandwidth 3.84 MHz

Multiple carriers can be used to increase capacity

Inter-Frequency functionality to support mobility between frequencies

Compatibility with GSM technology

Inter-System functionality to support mobility between GSM and UMTS

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Differences between WCDMA & GSM

High bit rates

WCDMA GSM
Carrier spacing 5 MHz 200 kHz
Frequency reuse factor 1 1–18
Power control 1500 Hz 2 Hz or lower
frequency
Quality control Radio resource Network planning
management algorithms (frequency planning)
Frequency diversity 5 MHz bandwidth gives Frequency hopping
multipath diversity with
Rake receiver
Packet data Load-based packet Timeslot based
Services with scheduling scheduling with GPRS
Different Downlink transmit Supported for Not supported by the
quality diversity improving downlink standard, but can be
requirements capacity applied

Efficient
packet data
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Multiple WCDMA carriers – Layered network

1 - 10 km

F3
F2
F2 F1
F3
200 - 500 m
50 - 100 m Macro BTS
Micro BTS

F3
Pico BTSs

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CDMA principle - Chips & Bits & Symbols
Bits (In this drawing, 1 bit = 8 Chips  SF=8)

+1
Baseband Data
-1
Chip Chip
+1
Spreading Code
-1
+1
Spread Signal
-1

Air Interface
+1
Despreading
-1
+1
Data
-1

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Energy Box
Energy per bit = Eb = const
Originating Bit Received Bit

Duration
(t = 1/Rb)
Higher spreading factor  Wider frequency band  Lower power spectral density
BUT Same Energy per Bit

Frequency +1
Frequency Frequency
Band Band Band
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Spreading & Processing Gain
User bit
rate
R
Power density (Watts/Hz)

Unspread narrowband Spread wideband


signal signal

Frequency
Bandwidth W (3.84 Mchip/sec)

W  const  3.84 Mchip


sec

G p dB 
W
Processing gain:
R

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Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading

P(f) Spreading code

P(f)

f f
P(f)
Narrowband signal Broadband signal

Noise & Other Signal

Recovered signal Noise+Broadband signal


Signal
P(f) Combination P(f)

f Spreading code f

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Spreading and sharing the same space

P User A P

P P

f f
Data Data after
spreading
P P f f
User B
Transmission Despread
over the air User AB signal
at the receiver

f f

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Processing Gain Examples

Voice user (12,2 kbit/s) (User data rate) x (spreading ratio)=


R const.=W=3,84 Mcps
Unspread
narrowband signal
Power density

Processing Gain
G=W/R=25 dB
W
(W/Hz)

Spread wideband
signal

Frequency (Hz) •Spreading sequences of


different length
Packet data user (384 kbit/s) •Processing gain dependent on
R user data rate
Processing Gain
Unspread G=W/R=10 dB
Power density

"narrowband"
W signal
(W/Hz)

Spread wideband
signal
Frequency (Hz)

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Processing Gain
Gp = Wc/Wi
Wc: chip rate
Wi: user data rate

Wi f
Wc

 The more processing gain the system has, the more the power of uncorrelated
interfering signals is suppressed in the despreading process
 Thus, processing gain can be seen as an improvement factor in the SIR (Signal
to Interference Ratio) of the signal after despreading
 Example: Voice AMR 12.2 Kbps  Gp = 10*log(3840000/12200)= 25 dB
 After despreading the signal power has to be typically few dB above the
interference and noise: Eb/No = 5dB; therefore the required wideband signal-to-
interference ratio is 5dB – Gp = -20 dB.
 In other words, the signal power can be 20 dB under the interference and the
WCDMA receiver can still detect the signal
 Wideband signal-to-interference ratio is also called carrier-to-interference ratio:
C/I
 Thanks to spreading and despreading, C/I can be much lower in WCDMA than
GSM (C/I = 9-12 dB)
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Transmission Power

Power density
High bit rate user
Frequency

5MHz

Low bit rate user

Time

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Spreading in WCDMA
Consists of 2 operations:
1. Channelisation (OVSF: Orthogonal Variable SF)
 Transforms each symbol (data bit) to the number of chips (increases bandwidth)
 Number of chips per symbol = Spreading Factor (SF)

2. Scrambling (does not affect the signal bandwidth)


 Scrambling code is applied (PN codes)

Data Chips after


symbol spreading

channelization scrambling

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WCDMA Codes

In WCDMA two separate codes are used in the spreading operation


A. Channelisation code
B. Scrambling code

A. Channelisation code
– DL: separates physical channels of different users and common channels,
defines physical channel bit rate
– UL: separates physical channels of one user (DPDCH, DPCCH), defines
physical channel bit rate

B. Scrambling code
– DL: separates cells in same carrier frequency
– UL: separates users

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DL Spreading and Multiplexing in WCDMA
CHANNELISATION codes: Radio frame = 15 time slots

CODE 1 Pilot

P-CPICH BCCH
Pilot X User 1
CODE 2 User 2

P-CCPCH User 3
BCCH X
SUM
CODE 3

DPCH1 Time
User 1 X
CODE 4
+
3.84 MHz
DPCH2 SCRAMBLING RF carrier
User 2 X CODE
CODE 5

X RF
DPCH3
User 3 X

3.84 MHz bandwidth


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UL Spreading for DPCCH and DPDCHs
ced,1 ed,1 iqed,1

E-DPDCH1

cd,1 d .
.
DPDCH1 .
. ced,k ed,k iqed,k
cd,3 d E-DPDCHk


DPDCH3 I


.
. I+jQ
.
cd,5 d Se-dpch
. ced,K ed,K iqed,K
DPDCH5 E-DPDCHK

I+jQ cec ec iqec


E-DPCCH
Sdpch
cd,2 d
DPDCH2

cd,4 d DPCCH
DPDCHs Sdpch
DPDCH4
Spreading
Sdpch,n

Q
cd,6 d


DPDCH6 HS-DPCCH Shs-dpcch I+jQ
Spreading
j S
cc c
DPCCH E-DPDCHs
E-DPCCH Se-dpch
Spreading

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DL & UL Channelisation Codes

 Walsh-Hadamard codes: orthogonal variable spreading factor codes (OVSF codes)


– SF for the DL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512}
– SF for the UL transmission in FDD mode = {4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256}
 Good orthogonality properties: cross correlation value for each code pair in the code
set equals 0
 In theoretical environment users of same cell do not interfere each other in DL
 In practical multipath environment orthogonality is partly lost  Interference
between users of same cell
 Orthogonal codes are suited for channel separation, where synchronisation between
different channels can be guaranteed
 Downlink channels under one cell
 Uplink channels from a single user
 Orthogonal codes have bad auto correlation properties and thus not suited in an
asynchronous environment
 Scrambling code required to separate signals between cells in DL and users in UL

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Channelisation Code Tree
SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16 ... SF=256 SF=512
C16(0)=[.........]
C8(0)=[11111111]
C16(1)=[.........]
C4(0)=[1111]
C8(1)=[1111-1-1-1-1] C16(2)=[.........]
C2(0)=[11] C16(3)=..........]
C16(4)=[.........]
C8(2)=[11-1-111-1-1]
C16(5)=[.........]
C4(1)=[11-1-1]
C16(6)=[.........]
C8(3)=[11-1-1-1-111]
C16(7)=[.........]
C0(0)=[1]
C16(8)=[.........]
C8(0)=[1-11-11-11-1]
C16(9)=[.........]
C4(2)=[1-11-1]
C16(10)=[........]
C8(5)=[1-11-1-11-11]
C2(1)=[1-1] C16(11)=[........]
C16(12)=[........]
C8(6)=[1-1-111-1-11]
C16(13=[.........]
C4(3)=[1-1-11]
C16(14)=[.......]
C8(7)=[1-1-11-111-1]
C16(15)=[........]

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WCDMA Channelization Code

SF = chip rate / symbol rate

• High data rates → low SF code


• Low data rates → high SF code

Radio bearer SF Radio bearer SF

Speech 12.2 UL 64 Speech 12.2 DL 128

Data 64 kbps UL 16 Data 64 kbps DL 32

Data 128 kbps UL 8 Data 128 kbps DL 16

Data 144 kbps UL 8 Data 144 kbps DL 16

Data 384 kbps UL 4 Data 384 kbps DL 8

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Physical Layer Bit Rates (DL)
Spreading Channel Channel bit DPDCH Maximum user
factor symbol rate channel bit data rate with ½-
rate (kbps) rate range rate coding
(ksps) (kbps) (approx.)
512 7.5 15 3–6 1–3 kbps
256 15 30 12–24 6–12 kbps Half rate speech
128 30 60 42–51 20–24 kbps Full rate speech
64 60 120 90 45 kbps
32 120 240 210 105 kbps
16 240 480 432 215 kbps 128 kbps
8 480 960 912 456 kbps 384 kbps
4 960 1920 1872 936 kbps
4, with 3 2880 5760 5616 2.3 Mbps 2 Mbps
parallel
codes
W
RSymbol  Rb _ phy  2  RSymbol (QPSK modulation)
SF
Rb_phy includes: DPDCH (User data (DTCH) + L3 control (DCCH)) + Error protection +
DPCCH (L1 control)
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DL Primary Scrambling Code Group

Primary scrambling
code 0

Group 0 Primary scrambling


code 1

…………
Primary
scrambling Group 1 ……
codes for
downlink Primary scrambling
physical … code 8
channels
Primary
scrambling code
Group 63 8*63

……

Primary
scrambling code
64 primary 8*63 +7
512 primary
scrambling scrambling code Each group consists of 8
codes groups primary scrambling codes

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DL & UL Scrambling Codes

DL Scrambling Codes
• Pseudo noise codes used for cell separation
• 512 Primary Scrambling Codes

UL Scrambling Codes
• Two different types of UL scrambling codes are generated
• Long scrambling codes of length of 38 400 chips = 10 ms radio frame
• Short scrambling codes of length of 256 chips are periodically repeated to
get the scrambling code of the frame length
• Short codes enable advanced receiver structures in future

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Code Multiplexing

• Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level

Scrambling code

Channelization code 1 NodeB

User 1 signal

Channelization code 2

User 2 signal

Channelization code 3

User 3 signal

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Code Multiplexing

• Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level

Scrambling code 1
Channelization code
User 1 signal

Scrambling code 2
Channelization code
User 2 signal NodeB

Scrambling code 3
Channelization code
User 3 signal

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Channelisation and Scrambling Codes

Channelisation code Scrambling code


Usage Uplink: Separation of physical data Uplink: Separation of mobile
(DPDCH) and control channels Downlink: Separation of sectors (cells)
(DPCCH) from same terminal
Downlink: Separation of downlink
connections to different users within one
cell
Length 4–256 chips (1.0–66.7 s) Uplink: (1) 10 ms = 38400 chips or (2)
Downlink also 512 chips 66.7 s = 256 chips

Different bit rates by changing the length Option (2) can be used with advanced
of the code base station receivers
Downlink: 10 ms = 38400 chips
Number of codes Number of codes under one scrambling Uplink: 16.8 million
code = spreading factor Downlink: 512
Code family Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Long 10 ms code: Gold code
Short code: Extended S(2) code family
Spreading Yes, increases transmission bandwidth No, does not affect transmission
bandwidth

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Physical Layer Bit Rates (DL) - HSDPA
 3GPP Release 5 standards introduced enhanced DL bit rates with High Speed Downlink
Packet Access (HSDPA) technology

 Shared high bit rate channel between users – High peak bit rates
 Simultaneous usage of up to 15 DL channelisation codes (In HSDPA SF=16)

 Higher order modulation scheme (16-QAM)  Higher bit rate in same band
 16-QAM provides 4 bits per symbol  960 kbit/s / code physical channel peak rate
HSDPA
Modulation Coding rate 5 codes 10 codes 15 codes

1/4 600 kbps 1.2 Mbps 1.8 Mbps

QPSK 2/4 1.2 Mbps 2.4 Mbps 3.6 Mbps

3/4 1.8 Mbps 3.6 Mbps 5.4 Mbps

2/4 2.4 Mbps 4.8 Mbps 7.2 Mbps

16QAM 3/4 3.6 Mbps 7.2 Mbps 10.8 Mbps

4/4 4.8 Mbps 9.6 Mbps 14.4 Mbps


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Physical Layer Bit Rates (UL) - HSUPA

 3GPP Release 6 standards introduced enhanced UL bit rates with High Speed Uplink Packet
Access (HSUPA) technology

 Fast allocation of available UL capacity for users – High peak bit rates
 Simultaneous usage of up to 2+2 UL channelisation codes (In HSUPA SF=2 – 4)

2 x SF2 +
Coding rate 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2
2 x SF4
1/2 480 kbps 960 kbps 1.92 Mbps 2.88 Mbps

3/4 720 kbps 1.46 Mbps 2.88 Mbps 4.32 Mbps

4/4 960 kbps 1.92 Mbps 3.84 Mbps 5.76 Mbps

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Wireless Propagation

Transmitted
Signal

Transmission Loss:
Amplitude
Path Loss + Multi-path Fading

Received
Signal

Time

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Propagation of Radio Signal

Signal at Transmitter
20
15
10
5
dBm

0
-5
-10
-15
-20

Signal at Receiver
0
-5
-10
-15
dB

-20
-25
-30
-35 Fading
-40

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Fading Categories

 Fading Categories
Slow Fading
Fast Fading

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Diversity Technique

 Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals


for combining

 Reduce the effects of fading:


 Fast fading caused by multi-path
 Slow fading caused by shadowing

 Improve the reliability of communication

 Increase the coverage and capacity

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Diversity

 Time diversity
Channel coding, Block interleaving

 Frequency diversity
The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency
spectrum

 Space diversity

 Polarization diversity

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RAKE Receiver

Cell-1
Rx Finger
Cell-1
Rx Finger
Output
Cell-1
Rx Finger

Cell-2
Rx Finger
t
Delay 1

Delay 2

Delay 3
Code used
for the
connection

 Combination or multipath components and signal from different cells

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Principle of RAKE Receiver

Correlator 1
The combined
signal
Correlator 2 Combiner

Receive set
Correlator 3

Searcher correlator Calculate the


time delay and
signal strength
s(t) s(t)

t t

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive
performance of the system

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Wide Band Channel
Definition:
 A channel is defined wide when its bandwidth (Bw) is greater than the Coherence
Bandwidth: Bw >> Δfc

1
f c 
2S

34
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Wide Band Channel – Delay Spread

Channel impulse response (power delay profile) and delay spread

Dominant Path

1

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Wide Band Channel – Narrow/Wide Band System

36
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WCDMA and GSM in TU3 Channel

37
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Rake Receiver - Combining

 Combined signal without and with phase estimation and correction


(example 6 path channel)

38
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Maximal Ratio Combining of Symbols

Transmitted Received signal Time and Combined signal


signal (+noise) phase (+ residual noise)
adjustment
Finger n.1

Finger n.2

Finger n.3

UE
WBTS

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WCDMA in TU Channel

time

Corr 1
Corr 2 Corr 3 Corr 4
Corr 5 Corr 6 Corr 7

• High level of multipath diversity


41
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WCDMA in Indoor Channel

Rake Finger RESOLUTION = 0.26µs


Chip period = 1/3840000 s = 0.26µs  78meters
Corr 1

• No multipath diversity
42
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RF Optimization – Flow Chart

Drive Test

Identify any RF Issues

Identify candidate Identify nature of Determine amount


cells for changes required changes of changes

Implement changes

Repeat Drive Test

N
Problem Resolved?
Y
Finish

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RF Optimization - Solutions

 Antenna down tilt (M-tilt, E-tilt)


 Antenna azimuth
 Antenna location
 Back-lobe, Side-lobe suppression
 Antenna height
 Antenna type
 P-CPICH power
 Site location
 New site

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RF Analysis Approaches – Cell Dominance

Cells with no dominance at all:


 A site was not radiating during the drive survey
 Very poor dominance can also be caused by blocking of the antenna,
therefore a site visit must be made to verify the antenna clearance.
 Cells with either excessive or poor dominance
 This could be due to a high site or non-optimum antenna down tilts.
 Cells with too large dominance will be causing interference to adjacent
cells resulting in poorer quality and capacity.

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RF Analysis Approaches – Cell Dominance

Areas of non-dominance:
 Areas where there is not a single clear dominant cell and
where the best server changes too frequently.
 Result: excessive number of soft hand off events reducing the
system efficiency and increasing the probability of call drops.
 UE vs. Scanner Best Serving Cells:
 Comparison between the UE and scanner SC plots, significant
differences between the plots may indicate a missing neighbor
or failed soft handoff problem.

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RF Analysis Approaches – Cell Dominance

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RF Analysis Approaches – CPICH Coverage

Check areas of poor coverage, suggestion value as below:


 Good: RSCP ≥ -85 dBm
 Fair: -95 dBm ≤ RSCP < -85 dBm
 Poor: RSCP < - 95 dBm
 Examine the RSCP coverage on per cell bases in order to
highlight any cells that have too large a footprint.

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RF Analysis Approaches – CPICH Coverage

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RF Analysis Approaches – Interference

CPICH Ec/Io Plot


 Good: Ec/Io ≥ -8 dB
 Fair: -14 dB ≤ Ec/Io < -8 dB
 Poor: Ec/Io < - 14 dB

The -8 dB threshold takes into account the expected future interference


increase as a result of increased traffic.

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RF Analysis Approaches – Interference

What’s the
-14 -90 problem?
-15 -15.5 -95

-16 -100
-104
-17 -105

-18 -110

-19 -115

-20 -120
Ec/Io RSCP

Because the RSCP Level is POOR, the


fundamental cause of low Ec/Io is
POOR COVERAGE

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RF Analysis Approaches – Interference

-14
-63
-60 What’s the
-15 -15.5 -65 problem?
-16 -70

-17 -75

-18 -80

-19 -85

-20 -90
Ec/Io RSCP

RSCP level is GOOD, this will imply


strong SYSTEM INTERFERENCE
(possible Pilot pollution)

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RF Analysis Approaches – Interference

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RF Analysis Approaches – UL Coverage

 Uplink Coverage (UE Tx Power)


 High UE Tx power means possible poor uplink coverage or high
RTWP
 Areas of high Tx power should be compared to the CPICH pilots to
verify if the problem only exists on the uplink (unbalanced links)

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RF Analysis Approaches – UL Coverage

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RF Analysis Approaches – Pilot Pollution

Definition of Pilot Pollution:


 Within a certain margin (which is called ThRSCP_Relative) to the best
server, and all the pilots should be > -100dBm
 The pilot number (whose strength > best server strength–
ThRSCP_Relative) > ThN (ThN means active set size, normally 3)
 Cells which are frequently seen as polluters (e.g. >8% time) should be
marked and investigated.
 Pilot Pollution results should be used in conjunction with the Estimated
Active Set Size

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RF Analysis Approaches – Pilot Pollution

-60

-65 Margin

-70
RSCP (dBm)

-75 -62
-64 -66
-68 -69
-80

-85 -81

-90
SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 SC5 SC6

Active Set Pilot Pollution Not


Pilot Pollution
ThRSCP_Relative was set 8 dB here

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RF Analysis Approaches – Pilot Pollution

SC Count % in Pollution Set


8 206 12.9%
9 165 10.3%
10 157 9.8%
11 156 9.7% Should be investigated
12 148 9.2%
13 135 8.4%
16 95 5.9%
17 94 5.9%
18 76 4.7%
19 74 4.6%
20 73 4.6%
21 56 3.5%
32 54 3.4%
35 39 2.4%
37 33 2.1%
43 19 1.2%
48 8 0.5%
53 7 0.4%
67 3 0.2%
80 2 0.1%
130 2 0.1%

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RF Analysis Approaches – Pilot Pollution

Estimated Active Set Size


 Another useful measure of pilot pollution is by looking at the
estimated active set based on the scanner data. This plot is
obtained by modeling the network soft handoff parameters within
Post process tool.
 In order to see areas of excessive SHO candidates, the
estimated active set size is allowed to exceed maximum of 3.
 This can be done in conjunction with the Pilot pollution analysis.

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RF Analysis Approaches – Pilot Pollution

 Estimated Active Set Size Example

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Effects of CPICH Power modification

Less Power
Available for traffic
Reduced system
capacity
Increased soft
handover overhead

Too much Late cell reselection Non- ideal traffic


power /handout
/handover
too late distribution

CPICH Transmit
Power

CPICH coverage Reduced system


Too little holes coverage
power
Unreliable scrambling Slow initial
code detection synchonisation

Unreliable
Unreliablechannel
channel Increased
IncreasedEb/No Reduced system
estimation requirement capacity

Early cell reselection Non- ideal traffic


/handout
/handover
too early distribution

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RF Optimization based on Scanner data

Data collection A Possible


Actions/Solutions
1. Antenna Tilting
2. Antenna Panning
No 3. Change Antenna Type
CPICH Ec > Threshold 4. Change Antenna Height
e.g. –100 dBm 5. Change CPICH Tx Pwr
Low Etc.
CPICH Ec Yes
A
No amount of Scrambling Yes
CPICH Ec/Io > Threshold
e.g. –11 dB Codes > X Pilot
Pollution
Yes
No
A
No
Dominance Area OK
Aggregated to Peak
> 3 dB Yes Multi-path
Yes Problem
A Bad No
Ec/Io
A
A
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Optimization-Overview

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Optimization-Overview Block A

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Optimization-Overview Block A

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Ec/No vs RSCP - unloaded

EcIo vs RSCP

D 0% 97% A

-5
E cIo

-10
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40

-15

C 0% 3% B
-20
R SC P

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Ec/No vs RSCP - loaded

EcIo vs RSCP

D 0% 93.8% A

-5
E cIo

-10
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40

-15

C 0% 6.2% B
-20
R SC P

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EcNo vs RSCP : unloaded – loaded
EcIo vs RSCP

0
D 0% 97% A
0%
93.8%

-5
E cIo

-10
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40

-15

0% 3%
0%
C 6.2% B
-20
R SC P

E cN o vs R S C P U nloaded E cN o vs R S C P Loaded

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Optimization-Overview Block B

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Optimization-Overview Block C

70
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Blocking areas in the 3G RAN
RAN blocking process is focused to the following interfaces and network
elements:
 Radio Interface capacity:
 NodeB power
 DL spreading codes (OVSF)
 UL load (RTWP)
 Node B (BTS) capacity –WBTS Base band processing capacity (CE’s)
 Iub capacity – Transmission (TRS)
 Iu-CS traffic GPRS
Internet
(TCP/IP)
 Iu-PS traffic RAN 3G

 Iur traffic SGSN Circuit Switched


Blocking due to BTS capacity
Core Network
GGSN
RNC
Blocking due to Air PS Core Network
Interface
USIM
card WCDMA HLR
BTS
MSC
GSM/WCDMA mobile
Media
Blocking due to Iub Gateway
WCDMA (PSTN/ISDN)
BTS RNC

Blocking due to Iur Iu-PS and Iu-C Blockings

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Company Confidential
Uplink Interference Analysis—Uplink Interference Composition

 Receiver noise floor PN


PN  10 log( K * T * W )  NF
23
K:Boltzmann constant, 1.38×10 J / K
T:Kelvin temperature, normal temperature: 290 K
W:Signal bandwidth, WCDMA signal bandwidth 3.84MHz
10lg(KTW) = -108dBm/3.84MHz
NF = 3dB (typical value of macro cell BTS)
• PN  10 log( K *T *W )  NF  105dBm / 3.84MHz

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Uplink Interference Analysis—Load Factor and Interference

 According to the below mentioned relationship, the noise


will rise: ITOT 1 1
NoiseRise   
N
1  UL
1  1  i   L j
PN
1

50% Load — 3dB


60% Load — 4dB
75% Load — 6dB

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Downlink Transmit Power
 The downlink transmit power has two parts:
one part is used for common channel, and
the other part for dedicated (traffic)
channel.
N
PT  PCCH   Pj
1
 The transmit power is allocated by the cell
to each user varies with service
demodulation threshold, propagation path
loss and the interference received by the
user
 The downlink transmit power of the cell is
shared by all the users in the cell
 Generally simulation method is used to
analyze the downlink interference
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Downlink Channel Code Resources

 The WCDMA network use the codes C4,0

C2,0 1 1 1 1
whose SF is 4~512. The smaller the
1 1 C4,1
SF is, the higher the supported data C1,0 1 1 -1 -1

rate will be. 1 C4,2


1 -1 1 -1
 In the code tree, the allocable codes C2,1
1 -1 C4,3
should meet the following conditions: 1 -1 -1 1

 No codes on the path from this code SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4


to the root node of code tree are
allocated
 No codes in the sub-tree whose root
node is this code are allocated
 Try to reserve the code words whose
SF is small, so as to improve the
utilization efficiency

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Downlink Channel Code Resources

Following is an example of code resources allocation

SF 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512


                            ┏━●C(256,0):PCPICH 2
                        ┏ 0 ┫
                        ┃   ┗━●C(256,1):PCCPCH 3
                    ┏ 0 ┫
                    ┃   ┃   ┏━●C(256,2): AICH 6
                    ┃   ┗ 1 ┫
                    ┃       ┗━●C(256,3): PICH 10
                ┏ 0 ┫
                ┃   ┗━●C(64,1):SCCPCH 8
            ┏ 0 ┫
            ┃   ┃   ┏━●C(64,2):SCCPCH 9
            ┃   ┗ 1 ┫
            ┃       ┗━○3
        ┏ 0 ┫
        ┃   ┗━○1
    ┏ 0 ┫
    ┃   ┗━○1

    ┗━○1

   ┏━○2

    ┗━○3

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Channel element (CE)
 One Channel Element is the base band resource required in the Node-B to provide
capacity for one voice channel, including control plane signaling, compressed mode,
transmit diversity and softer handover.
 NodeB (One BBU3900) Channel Element Capacity:
• UL 1,536 CEs with full configuration
• DL 1,536 CEs with full configuration

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Company Confidential
Channel element (CE) – Huawei Features

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14 April 2019 Company Confidential 78
HSDPA CE – Huawei Dimensioning

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14 April 2019 Company Confidential 79
Thank you.

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14 April 2019 Company Confidential 7