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GELOMBANG (PAF 15113)

DESKRIPSI & MODEL


GELOMBANG MEKANIK 1 DIMENSI

WIHANTORO
yang ditinjau
GEL MEKANIK:
Obyek Besaran Fisis
definisi posisi (x) (?)
kecepatan (v)
Gerak - Fungsi
 Osilasi yang menjalar percepatan (a) gelombang
sepanjang medium Model 1D:
energi (E) - Persamaan
gerak
Gelomban frekuensi (f) 
gelombang
g tali periode (T)
1D
Pola ke-
periodik:
berulang-
sinus/cosinus
an
tidak periodik (tidak
dibahas)
“popular” wave.
(seperti SHM)
Gelombang mekanik memiliki
pola keberulangan, frekuensi, dan
The frequency of a wave
amplitudo
tells how often each point
oscillates.

The wavelength of a
wave is the length of one
The amplitude of a wave is complete cycle.
the maximum movement
from equilibrium.
Gelombang (mekanik)
1 dimensi
1D wave: pulse on a string

The wave is generated by a flick


on one end of the string.
The string is under tension.
A single bump is formed and
travels along the string.
The bump is called a pulse.
The diagram shows “snapshots” of
the creation and propagation of
the traveling pulse.
Traveling Pulse
The shape of the pulse at t = 0 is shown.
The shape can be represented by some
mathematical function, y (x,0) = f (x).
 This describes the transverse position y
of the element of the string located at
each value of x at t = 0.

The particle motion is shown by the blue arrow.


The direction of propagation is shown by the red arrow.
 The speed of the pulse is v.
 At some time, t, the pulse has traveled a distance v t.
 The shape of the pulse does not change with time.
 Its vertical position is now y = f (x – vt).
provides the mathematical description of the traveling pulse
The shape of pulse is described by the function f(x)

The function y is also called


the wave function: y (x, t).
(penyelesaian)
fungsi gel 1 D
http://www.kshitij-iitjee.com/linear-wave-equation
The speed of a transverse wave: string (model)

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


MODEL GEL 1 D: GEL TALI
continous pulse:
sinusoidal waves


v
A
MODEL GEL 1 D:
GEL TALI (sampling)
MODEL GEL 1 D: GEL TALI
(persamaan gelombang)
LIHAT JUGA DETAIL PENURUNAN RUMUSNYA DARI
POTONGAN VIDEO YANG SAYA SERTAKAN
MODEL GEL 1 D: GEL TALI
(cepat rambat gelombang tali)
Deskripsi fisis: gelombang sinusoidal
“membongkar” fungsi gelombang) → pers umum (simpangan) gelombang

cek dimensi fungsi gelombang. .. y ( x,t)  A sin ωt p



ω
I v T
P
2  x 
y  A sin t  
A T  v
II
 t x
 A sin  2  2 
x
 T 

k
Setelah A bergetar selama t detik maka titik P 
telah bergetar selama:
y( x,t)  A sin ωt  kx
x tp t  vx t x
tp  t  atau   p  
v T T T λ
Deskripsi fisis:
gelombang sinusoidal

The movement of the wave is indicated by the


short arrow pointing to a peak of the wave.

But, at the meantime, the string moves only


parallel to the x axis. Examine the motion of the
red-colored string element at x = 0.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 10
 Therefore the general equation of displacement for sinusoidal
progressive wave is given by
The wave propagates to the right :

yx, t   A sin t  kx


The wave propagates to the left :

yx, t   A sin t  kx


where yx,t  : displaceme nt of the particle as a
function of x and t
A : Amplitude of the wave
ω : angular frequency
k : wave number
x : distance from the origin
t : time
 : phase angle
PHYSICS CHAPTER 10
 Some of the reference books, use other general equations of
displacement for sinusoidal progressive wave:
The wave propagates to the right :

yx, t   A sin kx  t 

The wave propagates to the left :

yx, t   A sin kx  t 


“pergeseran” gelombang sinusoidal
 Two sinusoidal traveling waves with
identical amplitude, wavelength, and
period, can also be shifted one from
another.

   To accommodate this, the wave
5 function can be generalized by
inserting a phase constant  :

y( x, t )  ym sin(kx  t   )
x
 2  Δ   2
 x  k
    Δ  
2 
 2 
x
  x   kx O P Q
   x
Particle velocity and acceleration in a sinusoidal wave
• From the wave function, we have an expression for the
kinematics of a particle at any point on the wave.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley


Laju penjalaran gelombang sinusoidal
 The wave is traveling in the positive
direction of x (to the right), and the
entire wave pattern moves a distance
Δx during the time interval Δt.

y( x,t)  A sin ωt  kx


 taking the derivative of wave
function (t  kx) with respect to t

ωt  kx  C dx
ωk
dt

  the wave phase speed or


Wave speed: v phase velocity v as:
k
 
Transverse speed: vm   xm v  f
k T
Particle velocity and acceleration in a sinusoidal wave
(wave equation)
y ( x, t )  A sin t  kx
 ( x, t )
vy   A sin t  kx
t  2 ( x, t )
v y  A cos t  kx t 2  A  2

 ( x, t )  A k 2
2
dx ω
ωk  v
 2 ( x, t ) x 2 dt k
ay   A cost  kx
t 2
a y   A 2 sin t  kx
 2 ( x, t ) 1  2 ( x, t )
  A y  x, t 
2
 2
t 2
v x 2
(wave equation)
 2 ( x, t )
  k 2
A sin( t  kx)
x 2

  k 2 A y ( x, t )

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* DUA CARA
PENURUNAN
PERSAMAAN
GELOMBANG

(wave equation)
y ( x, t )  A sin t  kx
 2 ( x, t ) 1  2 ( x, t )
 2
t 2
v x 2
The Energy Transfered by Wave Motion

(having used k = ω/v and v2 = F/μ)

Clearly the instaneous maximum power transferred by the


progressive wave is

http://www.jca.umbc.edu/~george/html/courses/phys224/2006spg/lectures/lect26/lect26.shtml

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