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Dept.

Fisiologi FK USU
Prof. Yasmeiny Yazir
dr.Nuraiza Meutia,M.Biomed

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 The three types of
muscle tissue are
skeletal, cardiac, and
smooth

 These types differ in


structure, location,
function, and means of
activation

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Table 12-3: Comparison of Three Muscle Types3
Characteristics by :
 Speed of contraction – determined by speed
in which ATPases split ATP
 slow and fast fibers
 ATP-forming pathways
◦ Oxidative fibers – use aerobic pathways
◦ Glycolytic fibers – use anaerobic glycolysis

These two criteria define three categories –


slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative fibers,
and fast glycolytic fibers

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 Slow oxidative fibers contract slowly, have slow
acting myosin ATPases, and are fatigue
resistant
 Fast oxidative fibers contract quickly, have fast
myosin ATPases, and have moderate resistance
to fatigue

 Fast glycolytic fibers contract quickly, have fast


myosin ATPases, and are easily fatigued

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Structur of membrane
surounding the musle
fibrils, consist of :
 T tubules : are
continuous with the
sarcolemma
 Sarcoplasmic reticulum
: functions in the
regulation of
intracellular calcium
movement
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 Electrical characteristics of skeletal muscle :
◦ Resting membrane potential : - 90 mV
◦ Duration of Action Potential : 2-4 ms
◦ Speed of conduction : ± 5 m/s
◦ Absolut refractory period : 1-3 ms

 Ionic fluxes :
◦ Na+ influx → depolarization
◦ K+ efflux → repolarization

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Contractile responses

Stimulation

Depolarization at Action
motor end-plate potential
muscle fiber

contractile
response

Single A.P → single contraction = muscle twitch 12


 In order to contract, a skeletal muscle must be
stimulated by a nerve ending of the somatic
nervous system
 Axons of this neurons branch profusely as they
enter muscles
 Each axonal branch forms a neuromuscular
junction with a single muscle fiber

 When a nerve impulse reaches the end of an axon


at the neuromuscular junction, ACh release to the
synaptic cleft.

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◦ ACh diffuses across the synaptic cleft to
ACh receptors on the sarcolemma

◦ Binding of ACh to its receptors initiates an


action potential in the muscle.

◦ The process by which depolarization of the


muscle fiber initiates contraction is called
Excitation-Contraction coupling.

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1. Acetylcholin initiates A.P in muscle cell →
propagated to entire surface of muscle cell
membrane.
2. The surface electric activity caried into the muscle
fiber by the T tubules.
3. A.P in the T tubules trigers Ca2+ release from
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
4. Ca2+ bind to troponin (on actin filament) → leads to
tropomyosin moved aside → uncover actin’s
cross-bridge binding sites.

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Myosin head
(high-energy
configuration)

1 Myosin cross bridge attaches to


the actin myofilament
Thin filament

Thick ADP and Pi (inorganic


filament phosphate) released

4 As ATP is split into ADP and Pi, 2 Working stroke—the myosin head pivots and
cocking of the myosin head occurs bends as it pulls on the actin filament, sliding it
toward the M line

Myosin head
(low-energy
configuration)

3 As new ATP attaches to the myosin


head, the cross bridge detaches Figure 9.11
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5. Myosin cross-bridges attach to actin & bend,
producing a power stroke pulling actin
filaments toward center of sarcomere
(previously, myosin have been energized by
the splitting of ATP into ADP +Pi + energy
by myosin ATPase, site on the cross-bridge)

6. Inward sliding of all the thin filaments (actin)


surounding a thick filament (myosin)
shortens the sarcomere / cause muscle
contraction.

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7. Pi & ADP is released from the cross-bridge after
the power stroke is complete.
8. New ATP attach → permits separation of the cross-
bridge → return to its original conformation
9. Splitting of ATP by myosin ATPase energizes the cross-
bridge once again.

10. If Ca2+ still present so that the troponin-tropomyosin


complex remain pulled aside : the cross-bridge go
through another cycle of binding & bending, pulling the
thin filament in even further.

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Figure 12-19: Isotonic and isometric contractions
 In isotonic contractions, the muscle changes
in length (decreasing the angle of the joint)
and moves the load
 The two types of isotonic contractions are
concentric and eccentric
◦ Concentric contractions – the muscle shortens and
does work
◦ Eccentric contractions – the muscle contracts as it
lengthens
 Concentric.
 Static.
 Eccentric.

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 A motor unit is a motor neuron and all the
muscle fibers it supplies
 The number of muscle fibers per motor unit
can vary from four to several hundred
 Muscles that control fine movements (fingers,
eyes) have small motor units

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 "All or none"
 Fine touch
◦ 1:1 nerve to fiber
◦ Finger tips
 Big muscles
◦ 1: 2000
◦ Leg muscles

Figure 12-18: Motor units


 Weak stimulus
◦ Lowest threshold fibers
◦ Slow twitch typically
 Moderate: adds Fast
Oxidative
 High stimulus: all fibers
 Asynchronous:
◦ Units take turns
◦ Prevents fatigue
Figure 12-18: Motor units
 For skeletal muscles to perform
normally:
◦ The Golgi tendon organs (proprioceptors)
must constantly inform the brain as to the
state of the muscle
◦ Stretch reflexes initiated by muscle
spindles must maintain healthy muscle
tone
Figure 13.15
 Stretching the muscles activates the muscle
spindle
◦ There is an increased rate of action potential in Ia
fibers
 Contracting the muscle reduces tension on
the muscle spindle
◦ There is a decreased rate of action potential on Ia
fibers
Figure 13.16
 Stretching the muscle activates the muscle
spindle
 Excited  motor neurons of the spindle cause
the stretched muscle to contract
 Afferent impulses from the spindle result in
inhibition of the antagonist
 Example: patellar reflex
◦ Tapping the patellar tendon stretches the
quadriceps and starts the reflex action
◦ The quadriceps contract and the antagonistic
hamstrings relax
Figure 13.17
 The opposite of the stretch reflex
 Contracting the muscle activates the Golgi
tendon organs
 Afferent Golgi tendon neurons are stimulated,
neurons inhibit the contracting muscle, and
the antagonistic muscle is activated
 As a result, the contracting muscle relaxes
and the antagonist contracts
Figure 13.18
 The three levels of motor control are
◦ Segmental level
◦ Projection level
◦ Precommand level
1. The frequency of stimulation
2. The length of the fiber at the onset of
contraction
3. The extent of fatique
4. The thickness of the fiber.

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 Threshold stimulus – the stimulus strength at
which the first observable muscle contraction
occurs
 Beyond threshold, muscle contracts more
vigorously as stimulus strength is increased

 Force of contraction is precisely controlled by


multiple motor unit summation
 This phenomenon, called recruitment, brings
more and more muscle fibers into play

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Figure 9.15 (a, b)
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1

 Summation of contraction ;
repeated stimulation (before relaxation has
occurred) → additional activation of the
contractile elements → greater tension
developed.

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 Tetanic contraction ;
rapidly repeated stimulation, no relaxation
has occurred → continuous contraction.
◦ Complete tetanus
◦ Incomplete tetanus

 Staircase – increased contraction in response to


multiple stimuli of the same strength
Contractions increase because:
◦ There is increasing availability of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasm
◦ Muscle enzyme systems become more efficient because
heat is increased as muscle contracts

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2
 Maximum tension produce if length of the
fiber at the onset of contraction is normal
(resting length)
 If the muscle is stretched (longer) or shorter,
the active tension & total tension will
reduced.
 The velocity of muscle contraction is maximal
at the resting length, & declines if the muscle
get shorter or longer.
(see fig. 3.11 in Ganong)

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 Muscle fatigue – the muscle is in a state of
physiological inability to contract

 Muscle fatigue occurs when:


◦ ATP production fails to keep pace with ATP use
◦ There is a relative deficit of ATP, causing
contractures
◦ Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle
◦ Ionic imbalances are present

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4
The force of contraction is affected by:
◦ The number of muscle fibers contracting – the
more motor fibers in a muscle, the stronger the
contraction
◦ The relative size of the muscle – the bulkier the
muscle, the greater its strength

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 Thermodynamically, the energy supplied to a
muscle must equal its energy output.
 Only 40% of the energy released in muscle
activity is useful as work
 The remaining 60% is given off as heat

 The overall mechanical efficiency of skeletal


muscle (work done/total energy expenditure)
ranges up to 50% while lifting a weight during
isotonic contraction and is essentially 0% during
isometric contraction.

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 Resting heat : the heat given off at rest, is
the external manifestation of basal
metabolic processes.
 Initial heat : the heat produced in excess of
resting heat during contraction,
this is made up of
◦ activation heat : the heat that muscle produces
whenever it is contracting, and
◦ shortening heat : which is proportionate in
amount to the distance the muscle shortens.

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 Following contraction, heat production in
excess of resting heat continues for as long as
30 minutes.
 Recovery heat : the heat liberated by the
metabolic processes that restore the muscle to
its precontraction state.

 If a muscle that has contracted isotonically is


restored to its previous length, extra heat in
addition to recovery heat is produced
(relaxation heat).

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 With age, connective tissue increases and
muscle fibers decrease
 Muscles become stringier and more sinewy
 By age 80, 50% of muscle mass is lost
(sarcopenia)
 Regular exercise reverses sarcopenia
 Aging of the cardiovascular system affects
every organ in the body
 Atherosclerosis may block distal arteries,
leading to intermittent claudication and
causing severe pain in leg muscles

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