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VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

JAMMU KASHMIR AND LADAKH


MADE BY : VAIDEHI DESAI
SECTION : A
ITM SAAD
GEOGROPHY CLIMATE FESTIVALS HANDI CRAFTS
LATITUDES : 32• .17’ TO 36•.58’ •SEVERE HUMID
NORTH •RAW WINTERS
LONGITUDE : 73*.26’ TO 80*.26’ •SHORT SUMMER
EAST.
NEIGHBOURING STATES :PAKISTAN RIVERS & KASHMIRI SHAWL
LAKES
FRON WEST, CHINA & TIBET IN THE NAVRATRI BAHU MELA
NORTHE AND EAST , PUNJAB AND
•CHENAB RIVER
HIMACHAL IN SOUTH AND WEST.
•INDUS RIVER
Percentage NO HOMOGENEITY WITH
Division •JHELUM RIVER
Area REGARDS TO ITS PHYSICAL PAPIER MACHE OBJECTS
•DAL LAKE
FEATURES BUT REPRESENTS AN
Kashmir 15.73% •WULAR LAKE
INTERESTING MORPHOLOGY.
Jammu 25.93% •MANASBAL LAKE
SUMMER CAPITAL : SRINAGAR CHAITRE CHAUDASH MELA BAISAKHI
Ladakh 58.33% WINTER CAPITAL : JAMMU
CARPET

LANGUAGES CULTURE
• KASHMIRI (53.27%) •STATE FAMOUSE FOR ITS
• HINDI (20.83%) MISCELLANEOUSE STYLE IN
• DOGRI (20.04%) EVERY ASPECTS. RIVER BOATS MANSAR FOOD AND LOHRI HANDI CRAFTS
• PUNJABI (1.75%) CRAFT MELA
•HIGHEST TEM: 37*
• OTHERS (4.11%) •KASHMIR IS AFFECTED BY MONSOON WHERE AS
•LOWEST : 14*
RELIGION •50 – 70” RAINFALL IN LADAKH NEVER EXPERIENCES IT.
OUTER HILLS
• ISLAM (68.31%) •30 – 40” IN KASHMIR
•BEST SEASON TO VISIT : SEPTEMBER TO APRIL


HINDUISM (28.43%)
SIKHISM (1.87%)
VALLEY •MOST VISITED PPLACE DISASTER
•-LESS THAN 10” IN •SRINAGAR , LEH •DISTINCT TOPO SURFACE
• BUDDHISM (0.89%) FRONTIER DISTRICK
•FAMOUSE FOR INDO •MULTI HAZARD PRONE ZONE –
• CHRISTIANITY (0.28%)
• JAINISM (0.01%)
TIBETIAN , SHIKHARAS SOIL EARTHQUAKE,FLOOD, LANDSLIDES
,AVALANCHES ,HIGH VELOCITY WINDS
AND JAMMU’S DOGRA •KASHMIR – CLAYEY, LOAMY RICH & LIGHT,
• OTHER OR NONE (0.01%)
• ATHEIST (0.001%)
CULTURE ALSO MASK PEATY AND LOW LYING SWAMPS AND IS OF ,SNOW , STORMS.
DANCE. ALLUVIAL ORIGIN BUT FERTILE •2005 – 4.6 MAGNITUDE
•SEMI MOUNTANIOUSE – COARSE •ALSO 6.2 MAGNITUDE AFTER SHOCKS
•LADAKH – BARE ROAKY WITH GRAVEL SLOPES•OCT 19 – MAX 5.8 MAG ,OCT 27 978 –
, KANDI TRACTS – THICK LAYER OF STON 4.0 MAG . MOUNTAINS RISING UP
GIVING BARE LOOK
KASHMIR SETTLE MENT FLOORING OPENING
•MUD ,WOOD, CARPET. •IN SOUTH OR
•EARTH , STONE. SOUTHWEST DIRECTION
SEMI -
PERMANENT PERMANENT TEMPORARY SLOPING ROOF •MINIMUM NO.S
•MAX SPAN – 3’.0”
•ALSO
FLAT ,
WOODEN
DAJJI HOUSE DONGA HOUSE KACCHI HUTTS N MUD
FLOORING FINISH.
1 ) DHAJJI HOUSE - PATCH WORK MUD PLASTER – COW DUNG – WHITE WASH
•KEEP INNER SPACE
WARM
•NO MORTAR.
•NOT MUCH EFFECT
SEEN IN DISASTER

STONE FOUNDATION DASA ( PLINTH BEAM)


•LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE
•PROTECTS
THE DASA
FROM
•PATCHING OF TIMBER WATER AND
AND STONE. INSECTS
WHY SO STRONG ?

•FRICKTION BREAKS DOWN


THE ENERGY
•EARTHQUAKE FORMS CRACKS •STONES MOVE AND RASPS
•SMALL PANELS DISTRIBUTE LOADS EVENLY. AGAINST EACH OTHER
•MANY SMALL CRACKS, PANEL FALLS BUT •NUT NEEDS PROTECTION
WALL REMAINS FROM WATER WITH
RESOLVED JOINERY
2 )DONGA HOUSE 1) SEMI AND PERMANENT HOUSE WALLS

• WELL WALL FINISH •SUN DRIED MUD BRICKS. RAMMED EARTH


PANEL. RETAINS TEMPERATURE
PLANNED
•FULLY •MUD PLASTERED – LIME WASHED
WOODEN •CREATES GERM FREE ATMOSPHERE.
•DELICATE KASHMIRI WOODEN
CARVING ROOF
•MODERN RESOURCES
•STREAMLINED BODY , WITH
WOODEN CARVING

LADAKH SETTLE MENT • FLAT DUE TO LESS PRECIPITATION.


• INSULATION FROM COLD
•BLACK HAIR OF
PERMANENT
SEMI –
TEMPORARY MATURED YAKS. OPENINGS
PERMANENT
3.5 % 56.5 % •WOODEN POLES
38.3%
•HEIGHT MIN – 6’
•VENT FOR CHULLAH
•STONE TOILET ,OF
REBO CALLED
LEKHA
•ADVERSE CLIMATE •HIGHLY DECORATED • SMALL IN
EFFECT SIZE • PAINTED IN BRIGHT COLORS
• MOSTLY IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-
3) TEMPORARY HOUSE •20-25 YRS VALIDITY
•NOT ALLOW TEMP EAST DIRECTIONS
CHANGE. •WOODEN
• MINIMAL
•HIGHLY DECO
FURNITURE - -RATED KITCHE
TAAQ STYLE CONSTRUCTION TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN &
•CONSISTING OF BRICK
MASONRY INTERLACED
SECTION OF KASHMIR HOUSE
WITH HEAVY TIMBER
BANDS SUPPORTED ON
LARGE MASONRY PIERS
MADE OF BAKED BRICKS.
•HAS A LARGE NUMBER
OF WINDOWS (“TAAQ”
FLOORING SETTLEMENT IN SRINAGAR NEAR
MEANS WINDOW), ONE •PLINTH WITH STONE N MORTAR JHELUM
IN EACH GAP BETWEEN – THEN TIMBER JOIST TO MAKE
THE PIERS. STRUCTURE STABLE AND
• THE ROOFS ARE TWO- EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE.
AND FOUR-SIDED

LADAKHI ROOF TECHNIQUE


FLOORING ON
EARTHQUAKE .
RAMMED EARTH.

•CEILING OF WOODEN BEAMS , RAFTERS & WILLOW


STICK JOISTS – WOVEN STRAW – YAGTSES GRASS –
PLANNIG
ROUGH SOIL – MARKALAK CLAY – FINAL SOIL LAYER
OR COW DUNG ETC.
TROMB WALL
DORJE HOUSE

•COMPACT AND
CLUSTER – MADE
WALL PLASTERING
•MUD, SAW DUST ,WOOD
UP OF STONE AND
SHAVING ,PAPER N PLASTIC
MUD CLAY
GARBAG WITH EARTH &
CLAY.
GALLERY INFLUENCE OF VERNACULAR
IN PRESENT

RARE EXAMPLE OF A SURVIVING


TURF ROOF SONAM WANGCHUK
ARCHITECTURE

ZOONDUB WITH FRETWORKED EAVES &


PENDANT WIND CHIMES

COLONIAL AND VERNACULAR


STYLE COMBINES

NIMMU HOUSE

DHAJJI HOUSE – STUCO EXTERIOR


AND TAQQ CONSTRUCTION WITH
BRICK PIERS