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## Concept of slack power

• Steps involved in a power flow analysis
• A desirable set of bus injections is initially prepared
• Regular injections

• It is then attempted to find out a solution for the system state for the
given bus injection vector

• It may not be possible to get a solution for the system state with only
regular injections
• The system cannot operate under any arbitrary bus injection pattern
• Consequently, some additional power should also be simultaneously
injected into the system

## • The additional power that is injected is termed the slack power

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Concept of Reference
• Reference classification
• Angle reference
• The bus of zero voltage angle
• Energy reference
• The ratio or pattern by which the slack power is injected into the
system
• Energy reference
• Lumped slack
• Slack power must be injected at a single bus
• Distributed or generalized slack
• Slack power can be distributed over multiple buses
• The ratio by which the slack power will be distributed is
controlled by the slack weight vector or Ω
Concept of Reference (con..)
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• If Pslack indicates the total slack power injection into the system,  j Pslack
indicates the slack power injection at Bus j
• Lumped slack is a special instance of distributed slack when only one
entry in the slack weight vector is non-zero
• In the lumped slack formulation, energy reference is represented by
a single bus
• However, the energy reference and the angle reference should not
necessarily be the same bus
• In the distributed slack formulation, energy reference is
represented by the slack weight vector
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Concept of Reference (con..)

• In a lumped slack power flow analysis, the slack bus can be eliminated from
the calculation to determine the system state
• In a distributed slack power flow analysis, all the buses must be included in
the calculation
Example of Power Flow Analysis
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## Consider the following system Line Data

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Line no. Impedance
(p.u.)
1 (1-2) 0.01+j0.1
2 (2-3) 0.025+j0.15
3 (3-1) 0.025+j0.2

3 2
Regular Injection Profile
(active power)
The voltage magnitudes at all Bus no. Injection (p.u.)
the buses are maintained at 1
per unit 1 1
2 -3
Bus 1 is the angle reference 3 2
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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Y-Bus calculation:
14.9108   1.4629 9.9504 1.6705 4.9614 1.6952 
Y   9.9504 1.6705 16.5178   1.4451 6.5760 1.7359 
 
 4.9614 1.6952 6.5760 1.7359 11.5350   1.4232 

## Case 1 (slack is lumped at bus 2):

Write the power flow equations:

## Equation 1 (for Bus 1):

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Pinj ( r ),1  Pinj,1  lf
Pinj ,1 (δ)   Y1, j cos( j  1  1, j )
j 1
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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## Equation 2 (for Bus 3):

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Pinj( r ), 3  Pinj,3  lf
Pinj ,3 (δ)   Y3, j cos( j   3  3, j )
j 1

Here,
 j Voltage angle at Bus j
 k , j Angle of Yk,j
Pinj, j Net injection at Bus j
Pinj( r ), j Net regular injection at Bus j

Let, the initial values of the voltage angles at all the buses be taken as zero
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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Now,  2  1 
Pinj( r ),1 
    J P 
 3  inj ( r ), 3 
For the first iteration,

Pinj
lf
,1 (δ)
J1,1    Y1, 2 sin( 2(0)  1(0)  1, 2 )  9.9010
 2
Pinj
lf
,1 (δ)
J1, 2    Y1,3 sin( 3( 0)  1(0)  1,3 )  4.9231
 3
Pinj
lf
,3 (δ)
J 2,1    Y3, 2 sin( 2( 0)   3( 0)  3, 2 )  6.4865
 2
Pinj
lf
,3 (δ)
J 2, 2   Y3,1 sin(1(0)   3(0)  3,1 )  Y3, 2 sin( 2( 0)   3( 0)  3, 2 )  11.4096
 3
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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## Pinj( r ),1  Pinj( r ),1  Pinj

lf
,1 (δ (0)
) 1 0 1
Pinj( r ),3  Pinj( r ),3  Pinj
lf
,3 (δ (0)
)202
Therefore,
1
 2   9.9010  4.9231 1  - 0.1467 
     6.4865 11.4096  2   0.0919 
 3     

##   2(1)  0  0.1467  0.1467, 3(1)  0  0.0919  0.0919

After the solution converges, the amount of slack power injection can be
calculated by means of the following equation

## Pslack  Pinj, 2  Pinj( r ), 2  Pinj

lf
, 2 (δ)  Pinj ( r ), 2
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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## Case 2 (slack is distributed):

General formulation (assuming all the voltage magnitudes are set at a
fixed level):
Pinj(r)  Pinj  ΩPslack
 Pinj(r)  Pinj
lf
(δ)  ΩPslack

1  where, δ  [ 2  3  n ]T
Let, δ  n is the number

 δ 
of buses

## (n is the total number of buses)

Pinj
lf
(δ)  Pinj
lf
(δ)   δ 
ΔPinj(r)  δ  ΩPslack    Ω  
δ  δ 
  slack 
P
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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## Let us define Ĵ as,

 Pinj
lf
(δ) 
ˆ 
J  Ω

 δ
 

 δ 
 Pinj(r) ˆ
J P 
 slack 
 δ  ˆ 1
   J Pinj(r)
Pslack 
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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For the given problem, let the slack weight vector be chosen as,
Ω  [1/ 3 1/ 2 1/ 6]T
The initial value of the slack power is taken as zero

## Now, for the first iteration

Pinj
lf
,1 (δ)
Jˆ1,1    Y1, 2 sin( 2( 0)  1( 0)  1, 2 )  9.9010
 2
Pinj
lf
,1 (δ)
Jˆ1, 2    Y1,3 sin( 3( 0)  1( 0)  1,3 )  4.9231
 3
Jˆ1,3  1  1 / 3
Pinj
lf
, 2 (δ)
Jˆ2,1   Y2,1 sin(1( 0)   2( 0)   2,1 )  Y2,3 sin( 3( 0)   2( 0)   2,3 )  16.388
 2
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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Pinj
lf
, 2 (δ)
Jˆ2, 2    Y2,3 sin( 3( 0)   2( 0)   2,3 )  6.4865
 3
Jˆ2,3   2  1 / 2
Pinj
lf
,3 (δ)
Jˆ3,1    Y3, 2 sin( 2(0)   3( 0)  3, 2 )  6.4865
 2
Pinj
lf
,3 (δ)
Jˆ3, 2   Y3,1 sin(1( 0)   3( 0)  3,1 )  Y3, 2 sin( 2( 0)   3( 0)  3, 2 )  11.41
 3
Jˆ3,3  3  1 / 6
Example of Power Flow Analysis (con..)
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## Pinj( r ),1  Pinj( r ),1  Pinj

lf
,1 (δ (0)
)  (1 / 3) Pslack  1  0  0  1
( 0)

## Pinj( r ), 2  Pinj( r ), 2  Pinj

lf
,2 (δ (0)
)  (1 / 2) Pslack  3  0  0  3
( 0)

## Pinj( r ), 3  Pinj( r ), 3  Pinj

lf
,3 (δ (0)
)  (1 / 6) Pslack  2  0  0  2
( 0)

Therefore,
1
  2   9.9010  4.9231  1 / 3  1  - 0.1467 
     16.3875  6.4865  1 / 2  3   0.0919 
 3       
Pslack   6.4865 11.4096  1 / 6  2   0 