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Dwa Desa Warnana

History of the magnetic method
 Oldest Branch of Geophysics
• Chinese first to use north-seeking properties of lodestone
• 1600 William Gilbert publishes De Magnete: ‘…the whole earth is
a magnet’

 Prospecting
• Began in Sweden for iron ore in 1640’s
• Thalen and Tiberg (1870) measured Earth’s magnetic fields
• A. Schmidt (1915) developed a balance magnetometer
• During WWII instruments became smaller and easier to use

 Now, magnetic tools are one of the most cheaply and

easiest to acquire geophysical data sets
The Earth magnetic Field
The Earth magnetic Field
Biot – Savart Laws

Fundamental Magnetic Theories
Charles Augustin de Coulomb in 1785 showed that the
force of attraction or repulsion between electrically
charged bodies and between magnetic poles obeys an
inverse square law similar to that derived for gravity by

 m = magnetic permeability
 p1 and p2 = strengths of the two magnetic
 r = the distance between the two poles

Unlike the gravitational constant, G, the magnetic permeability,

μ, is a property of the material in which the two monopoles, p1
and p2, are located. If they are in a vacuum, μ is called the
magnetic permeability of free space.

Unlike m1 and m2, p1 and p2 can be either positive or

negative in sign. If p1 and p2 have the same sign, the force
between the two monopoles is repulsive. If p1 and p2 have
opposite signs, the force between the two monopoles is
Fundamental Magnetic Theories
Fundamental Magnetic Theories
However, the magnetic monopoles have never existed! Rather the
fundamental magnetic element appears to consist of two magnetic
monopoles: one positive and the other negative, separated by a
distance. Thus the fundamental magnetic element consisting of two
monopoles is called a magnetic dipole. Every magnetic grain is
therefore a dipole.
Fundamental Magnetic Theories

Magnetic Dipoles

The force associated with the

magnetic dipole, looks more
complicated than the simple
force associated with gravity
Fundamental Magnetic Theories
Field Lines for a Magnetic Dipole

Another way to visualize the

magnetic force field
associated with a magnetic
dipole is to plot the field
lines for the force
Fundamental Magnetic Theories
Magnetic Field/ Magnetic Field Strength
The magnetic field strength, H, is defined as the force per unit pole
strength exerted by a magnetic monopole, p1.

The units associated with magnetic field

strength are Newtons per Ampere- meter,
N / (Amp - m).  Tesla (T)
Fundamental Magnetic Theories
Magnetic Field/ Magnetic Field Strength

• When describing the magnetic field strength of the earth, it is

more common to use units of nanoTeslas (nT).
• one nanotesla (nT) is 1 billionth of a tesla.
• The average strength of the Earth's magnetic field is about
50,000 nT.
• A nanotesla was also commonly referred to as a gamma ().
Magnetization of Materials
Magnetic Induction

The strength of the magnetic field induced by the magnetic material

due to the inducing field is called the intensity of magnetization, M.
Magnetization of Materials
Magnetic Induction
The magnetization is measured by
the magnetic polarization.

Intensity of magnetization, M 
dipole moment per unit volume

If M is constant and has the same

direction  uniformly magnetized

SI unit  Ampere per meter (A/m)