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Lecturer: Noman Al Hassan

Email: noman44m@hotmail.com
Objective of Lecture
After studing this chapter, you should be able to know

• Transistor.
• The unbiased Transistor.
• The Biased Transistor.
• Transistor Currents.
• The CE Connections.
• Base Curve.
• Collector Curve.

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• Transistors are a three terminal semiconductor
device, capable of amplification in addition to
rectification and can also be used as a switch for
electronic signals.

• This chapter introduce the Bipolar Junction

Transistor (BJT) uses both both free electrons
and holes. The word bipolar is an abbrevation for
two polarities.

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Unbiased Transistor…
• Bipolar Junction Transistors
– 3 terminal devices
• collector (c)
• base (b)
• emitter (e)
Transistor has two junctions.
– Base emitter junction or emitter diode.
– Base collector junction or collector diode.

Transistor is like two back to back diodes, each has barrier potential of 0.7 V.
When you connect external voltage source to transistor, you will get current
through different parts of the transistor.

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The Unbiased Transistor

• Base is a very thin region as compare to collector and emitter regions.

• Emitter is heavily doped.
• Base is lightly doped.
• Collecter is intermediate between emitter and base doping.
• Collector is physically the largest of the three regions.
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Bipolar Junction Transistors:

+ -

- + IB

IE = I B + IC ………(KCL)

VEC = VEB + VBC ……… (KVL)

EMITTER Electrons:
 The heavily doped emitter has the following job:
– To emit its free electron into the base.

BASE Electrons:
 The lightly doped base has the following job:
– To pass emitter injected electrons on to the collector.

COLLECTOR Electrons:
 The collector is so named because it collects most of the electrons from the

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Transistor Currents
IB: dc base current
IE: dc emitter current
IC: dc collector current
VBE: dc voltage at base with respect to emitter
VCB: dc voltage at collector with respect to base
VCE: dc voltage at collector with respect to emitter

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The CE Connection
• 3 useful way to connect a transistor
– Common Emitter (CE)
– Common Collector (CC)
– Common Base (CB)

Common Emitter (CE)

• The common or ground of each source is connected to the emitter
– Two loops
– Left loop is the base loop
– Right loop is the collector loop

Base Loop

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The CE Connection…


Base Loop

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• Transistors are used to amplify current and so in an examination
you could be asked to find the BASE current or COLLECTOR current
or the GAIN.
• The GAIN is simply the amount of amplification.

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• A transistor has a collector current of 2 mA and the current gain is
135, What is the BASE current?

• A transistor has a collector current of 10 mA and a base current of

40 micro A. What is the current gain of the transistor?

• A transistor has a current gain of 175. If the base current is 0.1 mA,
What is the collector current?

• A transistor has a collector current of 100 mA and the current gain

is 65, What is the emitter current?

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The Base Curve
• Looks like the graph of an ordinary diode

• For ideal diode VBE = 0.

• With the second approximation VBE = 0.7

• Example:
• Use the second approximation to calculate the base current. What is the
voltage across the base resistor? The collector current is if β = 200?

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The Collector Curve
• Vary VBB and Vcc produce different V and I.
• Get graph by Measuring IC and VCE.
• Change VBB till IB=10µA, now vary VCC and plot IC and VCE.

• Collector Voltage and Power.


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The Collector Curve…
Plot several curves for different IB we get set of IC curves.
All the curves are similar IC is constant in active region.
Current gain is 100.

 Region of operation
All transistors have
 Cut-off Region (Leak Current/ ignore)
 Active Region (amplification/ linear region)
 Breakdown Region
 Saturation Region (switching)

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• The shown transistor has β = 300. Calculate IB, IC,
VCE and PD.

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• What is the collector-emitter voltage. Using the ideal transistor,
using the second approximation.

• Suppose you measure a VBE of 1v. What is the collector-emitter


• What is the collector-emitter voltage in the three preceding

examples if the base supply voltage is 5v?

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