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Beginning of Mathematical Culture

Qulb e Abbas
Aim
By the end of this session we will come to
•know the Historical development of
Mathematical Culture.
•Formation of Pythagoras Theorem and Heron
Formula.
•Explain the creation of area of circle equation.
1. The beginnings of
Mathematical Cultures
Egypt was the first civilization to
develop Mathematical
Cultures for which we still
have written evidence today.

The Egyptian civilization,


indicated that mathematics
is a cultural product,
dependent on the humans
who create, use and change it.
(the history of Mesopotamia cf. Roux 1993
and van de Mieroop 2006)
Activity time
Usage of Mathematical Operations in Real life
1. The Egyptians required ordinary arithmetic in
the daily transactions of commerce and state
government
• to calculate “x” taxes
• to calculate the interest on loans
• to compute wages, and
• to construct a workable calendar
2. Simple geometric rules were applied to
determine boundaries of building and its
construction.
First step toward Geometrical Usage
• The king [Sesostris] divided the land among all Egyptians so
as to give each one a quadrangle of equal size and to draw
from each his revenues, by imposing a tax to be levied
yearly.
But every one from whose part the river tore
away anything, had to go to him and notify
what had happened.
• The overseers, who had to measure out by
how much the land had become smaller, in
order that the owner might pay on what was
left, in proportion to the entire tax imposed.
In this way, the use of geometry started in state
affairs was originated.
• The task of surveying was performed
by specialists whom the later Greeks
called rope-stretchers, or rope-fasteners.

Their main tool apparently


was a rope with knots or
marks at equal intervals.

Help in Developing

1. Pythagoras Theorem
2. Heron Formula
Area of Quadrangle / Quadrilateral
1
A= (a + c)(b + d)
4
where a, b, c, and d are the lengths of the consecutive
sides.
The formula is obviously incorrect.
1. It gives a fairly accurate answer only when the field is
approximately rectangular.
2. It is interesting that this formula to calculate the area
of a quadrilateral had been used till ancient Babylon.
Area of Round Field (Circle)
• Example of a Round field of a diameter 9 khet (unit).
1. What is its area of Round field (circle)?
1
Take away of the diameter, namely 1; the remainder is 8. Multiply 8
9
times 8; it makes 64.
Therefore it contains 64 (unit of area) setat of land.
𝑑 2 8𝑑 2
A = (d − ) = ( )
9 9
where d denotes the length of the diameter of the circle.
If we compare this with the actual formula for the area of
the circle then,

𝜋𝑑 2 8𝑑 2
Area of the circle= 𝜋𝑟 2 = = ( )
4 9
Summery – Key points
Egyptians was the first civilization to develop Mathematical Cultures
for which we still have written evidence today.
They used:
• Ordinary arithmetic in the daily transactions of commerce and state
government .
• Egyptians use simple geometric rules for the construction of
boundaries and building.
• Historical development of Pythagoras Theorem and Heron Formula.
• creation of area of circle equation.