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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Functions
 Transport the oxygen and carbon
dioxide, soluble food materials,
organic wastes, and hormones
 Regulation of the pH tissues
 Protection of the body against invading
microbes
 Regulation of the body temperature in
warm-blooded animals
Types of Circulation
 Open-type
• well-developed blood vessels passing from the heart
to the tissues where it opens into spaces called
lacunae
• from these spaces blood returns to the heart through
body spaces called hemocoel
 Closed-type
• blood is confined inside tubes or blood vessels
• blood passes from the heart to the tissues and back
through these vessels
Division of closed-type circulatory
system

 blood vascular system


• includes the blood, heart and blood vessels

 lymphatic system
• includes the lymph or tissue fluid, and lymph
vessels
THE BLOOD

a specialized
connective tissue
8% of total body
weight (4 to 6 liters in
average adult)
considered to be the
“essence of life”
Composition of Blood
 Plasma
• fluid portion of the blood
• 55% of total blood volume
• 90-92% water, 7-8% plasma proteins, and 1-2% salts and other
components
• average pH of 7.4
 Formed Elements
• include the cell (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and cell fragments
(thrombocytes)
• 45% of total blood volume
• 95% RBC; 5 WBC and platelets
ERYTHROCYTES
 red blood corpuscles (RBC)
 small, biconcave disk with polysaccharides
on the outer membrane
 almost the entire interior is packed with
hemoglobin
 about 4-6 million cells per mm3 and each
one of these cells contains about 200
million hemoglobin molecules
 hemoglobin contains 4 globin protein
chains each associated with heme, an iron
containing group, iron combines loosely
with oxygen, and this way oxygen is
carried in the blood
 responsible in the transport of oxygen to
body tissues
LEUKOCYTES
 white blood cells (WBC)
 less than 1% of the cell in
human blood
 about 5,000-9,000 cells/mm3
 larger than RBC (about twice in
size), with nucleus, no
hemoglobin, essentially
colorless
 play important function in the
immune system
Types of Leukocytes
 granulocytes
• with granules; have lobed nucleus
 agranulocytes
• with no obvious granules; and have indented
nucleus
Types of Granulocytes as Staining
Properties
 neutrophils
• with granules that do not take up a dye
• nucleus with two to five lobes
• stick to the interior walls of blood vessels at the site of injury, where they
engulf microorganism in the infected tissues
• 62% of WBC
 eosinophils
• with granules that take up the red dye eosin
• nucleus with two lobes
• 2% of WBC
 basophils
• with granules that take up basic dye staining then a deep blue coloration
• nucleus with two lobes
• rupture and release chemicals that enhance the inflammatory response
Types of Agranulocytes as to
Function
 monocytes
• large agranulocytes
• two to three times larger than RBC
• nuclear shape varies from round to lobed
• give rise to macrophages to enhance the inflammatory response
• 3% of WBC
 lymphocytes
• small agranulocytes
• only slightly larger than RBC
• nucleus nearly fills cells
• responsible for the immune system
• 32% of WBC
THROMBOCYTES
called as platelets in
humans
from fragmentation of
megakaryocytes, large
cells in the bone
about 250,000/mm3
involved in blood clothing
or coagulation
ABO Blood Classification
 the most common system of blood grouping
 transmitted by Mendelian heredity
 a prerequisite for blood transfusion
 based on the types of protein present in the surface of
red blood cells (antigen A and antigen B) and in the
plasma (anti-a and anti-b)
 agglutination (clumping of blood cells) will form when
antigen A combines with anti-a or antigen B combines
with anti-b
Antigen and antibody content of
the ABO blood type
Blood Type Cellular antigen Plasma antibodies

A A anti-a

B B anti-b

AB A and B none

O none anti-a and anti-b


Transfusion relationship of the
ABO blood type
Blood Type Can donate blood to… Can receive blood
from…
A A and AB A and O

B B and AB B and O

AB AB A, B, AB and O

O A, B, AB and O O
THE HEART
 the main pumping organ
of the body
 highly muscular organ
located in the mid- ventral
region of the thoracic
cavity
 enclosed by a tough
connective tissue, the
pericardium
Chambers of the Heart
 Atria or Auricles
• have thin walls, receive blood from the veins
and pump it into the ventricle
 Ventricles
• with much thicker walls, pump the blood out of
the heart to all parts of the body
Types of Heart as to Numbers of
Chambers
 two-chambered heart
• found in fishes and it has one auricle and ventricle
 three-chambered heart
• found in amphibians and reptiles, incomplete
circulation but there is slight mixing of venous and
arterial blood in the ventricle
 four-chambered heart
• found in birds and mammals, it has two auricles and
two ventricles, exhibits double and complete
circulation, no mixing of venous and arterial blood in
the ventricle
THE HUMAN HEART
THE HUMAN HEART
 one-shaped muscular organ about the size of a fist
 located between the lungs, tilted, the apex is directed to
the left
 internally, the left and right sides are separated by a
septum
 atria and ventricles are separated by atrioventricular
valves, tricuspid valve on the right and bicuspid valve on
the left
 between ventricle and its vessels, regulated by a
semilunar valve, pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves
THE BLOOD VESSELS
Types of Blood Vessel as to Direction of Blood
Flow
 Arteries
• carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, except
pulmonary arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood
away from the heart going to the lungs
• branched into arterioles connecting small arteries to
capillaries
THE HEARTBEAT
 about 70 times/minute depending on the age
 each heartbeat lasts about 0.85 sec
 cardiac cycle includes systole (contraction of the heart
muscle) and diastole (relaxation of heart muscle)
 contraction is intrinsic (outside nervous stimulation) due to
nodal tissue
 SA (sinoatrial) node in the upper dorsal wall of right atrium,
initiates atrial contraction, also called pacemaker
 AV node (atrioventricular) node in the base of the right
atrium, initiates ventricle contraction
 expels 60 ml of blood per beat
THE BLOOD VESSELS
Types of Blood Vessel as to Direction of Blood
Flow
 Capillaries
• connect arterioles and venules
• about 0.5 to 1 mm long
• could be found in the metabolic organs
THE BLOOD VESSELS
Types of Blood Vessel as to Direction of Blood
Flow
 Veins
• carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart, except
pulmonary veins, which carry oxygenated blood
towards the heart
• branched into venules, connecting small veins
capillaries
Layers of the Blood Vessels
(except capillaries and venules)
 tunica intima (inner layer) includes
endothelium
 tunica media (middle layer) includes elastic
and smooth muscle tissue
 tunica adventitia or tunica externa (outer
layer)
CIRCULATION PATTERNS
 Pulmonary Circulation
 blood flow through the system of the blood vessels
that carry blood from the right ventricle of the heart to
the lungs and back from the lung to the left atrium
 Systematic Circulation
 blood flow through the system of the blood vessels
that carry blood from the left ventricle of the heart to
the tissues of the body and back from the body to the
right atrium
COMMON BLOOD-RELATED
DISORDERS
 Hypertension or High Blood Pressure, medical
condition in which constricted arterial blood
vessels increase the resistance to blood flow,
causing the blood to exert excessive pressure
against vessel walls.
 Thrombosis, formation of a blood clot, or
thrombus, inside a blood vessel
 Leukemia, any several types of cancers that
affect blood cells.