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ADVERTISING

LIB203
Definition
• Advertising as “any paid form of
nonpersonal presentation and promotion
of ideas, goods, or services by an
identified sponsor.”

• Advertisement appears almost


everywhere in television/radio
(commercial break), billboard, printed and
internet
Advertising and
Psychology
• Psychology has been at the heart of
advertising since its invention

• For advertiser, the ability to manipulate


consumer impression and decision making
has been the key to success
Advertising History
• Roadside billboards carved in stone by
Ancient Egyptians

• Advertised on the walls of ancient Rome

• Town criers who shouted advertising in


the streets

• Printed advertisements were handbills,


announcements on single sheets of paper
and newspaper
Advertising History
The role of Psychology in
Advertising
• Persuasion term is the need of marketing

• Psychology can be seen in propaganda


advertising through visual perception,
memory, comprehension and
credibility
The role of Psychology in
Advertising
• Brand image: a growing awareness that
study of advertising should not be confined to
the short-term effects of buying behaviour
but on longer-term effects of impression
building and the elements of ads
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
Perceptual (cognitive) approach
1.McGuire (1985): model of advertising
effectiveness which explains the process rather
in terms of hierarchy of cognitive effects.
A classic information- processing model
presenting cognition as a linear process, with
early attention for later processing

-The message is unambiguous where the


interpretation included in the process, so it
appear to be simple case of absorbing and
understanding a clear statement about the
world
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
• Perceptual effects
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
• Perceptual effects
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
(cont’..)
Perceptual (cognitive) approach
2.Idea that advertising may work at a level
below full consciousness has long been a
feature of mainstream psychology.
• Concept of subliminal advertising which involved
images of which the consumer was not consciously
aware
-Iconic memory is the term given to the storage of a
brief visual stimulus
-Involve much altered sexual imagery in shadows and
reflections
-Capable of influencing consumer behavior through
the process of cognitive priming
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
Perceptual (cognitive) approach
subliminal advertising
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
• Perceptual effects
subliminal advertising
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
Attitudinal (Behavioral) approach
•Provide information about public impressions of products
and brands

-Compare on real social groups such as differentiated on


the basis of gender, ethnicity or age (demographics) and
psychographics information.

-Attitudinal studies of advertising can only speculate


about effectiveness;
- Rely on measures of LIKING for the ads, LIKING for
Products, how much MONEY participants might be willing
to spend, how likely they think the ad might affect their
consumer behavior
- Related to actual consumer behavior.
Cognitive and Behavioural
effects of advertising
Attitudinal (Behavioral) approach
Rhetorical effects of
advertising (3rd approach)
• Rhetoric:
The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing
(using verbal persuasion, how ad is
created)

• Strategy to persuade consumer using


language (nonpsychological)

• Rhetoric advertising has restricted itself to


the analysis of verbal appeals to
consumers
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
• Product endorsement: the use for
celebrities to promote advertised goods.
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
Intertextuality (form of link between
advertising)
-The effect of stretching the meaning of an
ad into other textual forms. So the
campaigns can build up meaning through
different media.
-Product placement: which
manufacturers pay large sums to
televisions or film companies so that their
products can be visible during a show or
movie
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
• Intertextuallity
- Product placement:
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
• Intertextuallity
- Product placement:
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
Brand awareness
-Built up through years of viewing and
interpretation on brands towards consumer
Rhetorical effects of
advertising
• Brand awareness
Advertising and children
• Children have not developed the cognitive
sophistication that enables them to tell
advertising apart from other forms of
programming and understand the nature
and function of advertising
Advertising and children
• Stage theory of consumer development
(among children)
Advertising and children
• “Pester power” and Modern-day
consumption
- Pester power: which repeated appeals on
television lead children to make prolonged
demands on parents for products that the
parents may not be able to afford.
Future directions in advertisi
ng
• Print ads
Future directions in
advertising
• TV commercial
Future directions in
advertising
• World Wide Web ads
Future directions in
advertising
• World Wide Web ads
Future directions in
advertising
• World Wide Web ads
Future directions in
advertising
• World Wide Web ads