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# INTRODUCTION

## ABOUT TWO-PHASE VERTICAL SEPARATOR

VERTICAL SEPARATOR DESIGN
CONCLUSION

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• The separator diameter must be determined
first.
• The gas velocity must be low enough to allow
the liquid droplets to settle out.

2
The size (diameter and height or length) of
a separator is normally determined by
consideration of its required capacity for gas and
oil.

3
For vertical separators, the upward average gas
velocity should not exceed the downward terminal velocity
of the smallest oil droplet to be separated.

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𝐶𝑑 could only be determined by an iterative procedure
as follows:
1. Assume a value for 𝐶𝑑 (a value of 0.34 could be used
as a first
assumption).
2. Calculate the velocity, u,
3. Calculate Re
4. Calculate 𝐶𝑑 and compare to the assumed value.
5. If no match is obtained, use the calculated value of
𝐶𝑑 and repeat steps 2–4 until convergence is obtained.

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• For each combination of D and 𝐿𝑠 , the slenderness ratio, SR, defined as
the ratio of length to diameter is determined.
• Separators with SR between 3 and 4 are commonly selected.

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The oil has to be retained within the separator for a specific
retention time, t. The volume of separator occupied by oil,
Vo, is obtained by multiplying the cross-sectional area by
the height of the oil column, H (in.).

## D is the internal diameter of the separator

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Repeat values of calculating 𝑐𝑑

## 𝑐𝑑 0.866 1.041 1.134 1.161 1.168 1.1702 1.1709 1.171 1.171

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6. Select values for D greater than 31.357 in. and calculate the corresponding values of
H.
D (in) H (in) 𝑳𝒔 (ft) SR
The corresponding values of 𝐿𝑠 ,
36 60.03 11.34 3.78
42 44.10 10.51 3.00 For SR,
48 33.77 10.15 2.54 12𝐿𝑠
𝑆𝑅 =
54 23.68 10.06 2.23 𝑑
3 < SR < 4
60 21.61 10.13 2.03
66 17.86 10.31 1.88
72 15.01 10.58 1.76

Table 1
From the results in the table, Separators with SR between 3 and 4 are commonly
selected. A preferred selection will be a 36 in. diameter by 12-ft separator as compared to a 42-in.
by 11-ft separator. This is because the 36-in. separator is a standard unit and would probably be
less costly than the larger-diameter, shorter separator.

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2. To determine the actual oil capacity;

2
𝜋 36 60.03 1 𝑏𝑏𝑙
= 257
4 12 12 3 𝑑𝑎𝑦

Table 2
D (in) H (in) 𝑳𝒔 (ft) SR 𝑸𝒈 (MMSCFD) 𝑸𝒐 (bbl/day)
36 60.03 11.34 3.78 19.77 3029.224

## 54 23.68 10.06 2.23 44.48 3029.224

60 21.61 10.13 2.03 54.92 3029.112

## 72 15.01 10.58 1.76 79.08 3029.728

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Chart 1 for Table 2 17
 𝑢𝑜 = upward velocity of oil phase (𝑓𝑡Τ𝑠)  𝑇 = operating temperature °𝑅
 𝑢𝑔 = downward settling velocity of water droplet (𝑓𝑡Τ𝑠)  𝑃 = operating pressure 𝑝𝑠𝑖
 𝐷 = internal diameter of the separator 𝑖𝑛  𝑡0 = oil retention time 𝑚𝑖𝑛
 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛 = minimum diameter of the separator 𝑖𝑛  𝑡𝑤 = water retention time 𝑚𝑖𝑛
 𝑄𝑜 = oil rate 𝑏𝑏𝑙
ൗ𝑑𝑎𝑦  𝑧 = gas compressibility factor

##  𝑄𝑤 𝑏𝑏𝑙  𝑉𝑜 = volume of oil 𝑓𝑡 3

= water rate ൗ𝑑𝑎𝑦
 𝑉𝑤 = volume of water 𝑓𝑡 3
 𝑄𝑔 = gas rate 𝑀𝑀𝑆𝐶𝐹𝐷
 𝐻𝑜 = Height of oil column 𝑖𝑛
 ∆𝛾 = difference in specific gravity of oil and water
 𝐻𝑤 = Height of water column 𝑖𝑛
 𝑑𝑚 = minimum water droplet size to be separated from
gas 𝜇𝑚 microns  𝛾𝑔 = gas specific gravity
 𝜌𝑜 = oil density (𝑙𝑏ൗ𝑓𝑡 3)  𝛾𝑜 = oil specific gravity
 𝜌𝑔 = gas density (𝑙𝑏ൗ𝑓𝑡 3)  𝑆𝑅 = slenderness ratio
 𝐿𝑠 = seam-to-seam length 𝑓𝑡
 𝑑𝑚 = droplet diameter (𝜇𝑚)
 𝑐𝑑 = drag coefficient 17
• If separator diameter (D) is large, gas rate (𝑄𝑔 ) will be large
although oil rate (𝑄𝑜 ) not depend on separator diameter.

## • In vertical separator, if it’s diameter is large, it will be short in

height, on the other hand, if it’s diameter small, it will be long in
height.

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Assignment(2)

## Determine the diameter and height(seam-to-seam length)of a two phase

vertical separator for the following conditions:

## Gas rate = 10 MMSCFD

Gas specific gravity = 0.65
Oil rate = 2000 bbl/day
Oil gravity = 35’ API
Operating pressure = 900 psi
Operating temperature = 60’ F
Retention time = 3 min