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UNIT- I WATER RESOURCES

Water resources survey – Water resources of India and Tamilnadu –


Description of water resources planning – Estimation of water
requirements for irrigation and drinking- Single and multipurpose
reservoir – Multi objective - Fixation of Storage capacity -Strategies for
reservoir operation - Design flood-levees and flood walls.
WATER RESOURCES SURVEY
Source of Water and Water
Resources in India
Global Water Distribution

Fresh Water – 2.5 %


Saline Water - 97.5 %

The oceans are the largest reservoirs of water, but since it is saline.
it is not readily usable for requirements of human survival.
Global Fresh Water Distribution

1. Lakes, Rivers and Soil Moisture – 0.4 %


2. Ground Water – 25.6 %
3. Ice caps and Glaciers – 74 %

The fresh water distribution is highly uneven, with


most of the water locked in frozen polar ice caps.
Hydrologic cycle

The hydrologic cycle consists of four key


components
1. Precipitation
2. Runoff
3. Storage
4. Evapotranspiration
Precipitation
• Precipitation occurs when atmospheric moisture becomes
too great to remain suspended in clouds.
• It denotes all forms of water that reach the earth from the
atmosphere, the usual forms being rainfall, snowfall, hail,
frost and dew.
• Rainfall is the predominant form of precipitation and its
distribution over the world and within a country.
• The distribution of precipitation for our country as recorded
by the India Meteorological Department (IMD)
Indian Monsoon
• India has a typical monsoon climate. At this time, the
surface winds undergo a complete reversal from January to
July, and cause two types of monsoon.
• In winter dry and cold air from land in the northern latitudes
flows southwest (northeast monsoon) from October to
December
• in summer warm and humid air originates over the ocean
and flows in the opposite direction (southwest monsoon)
July to September.
• Accounting for some 70 to 95 percent of the annual rainfall
• Pre-monsoon April to June
• Post-monsoon Jan - March
South - West Monsoon
Rainfall Distribution throughout India
• The average annual rainfall is estimated as 1170
mm over the country, but varies significantly
from place to place.
• More than 10000 mm of rainfall occurs in some
portion of the Khasi Hills in the northeast of the
country in a short period of four months. In other
parts of the northeast (Assam, Arunachal
Pradesh, Mizoram, etc.,) west coast.
• Sub-Himalayan West Bengal the average annual
rainfall is about 2500 mm.
Cont….
• In the broad belt extending from Madhya
Pradesh up to Tamil Nadu, through
Maharashtra, parts of Andhra Pradesh and
Karnataka, the average annual rainfall is
generally lower than 500 mm/year.
• The main areas affected by severe droughts
are Rajasthan, Gujarat (Kutch and
Saurashtra).
Runoff
• Runoff is the water that flows across the land
surface after a storm event. As rain falls over
land, part of that gets infiltrated the surface as
overland flow.
• As the flow bears down, it notches out rills and
gullies which combine to form channels. These
combine further to form streams and rivers.
Major Indian River Basins
The following are the major river basins of our country are.
1. Indus
2. Ganges
3. Brahmaputra
4. Krishna
5. Godavari
6. Mahanadi
7. Cauvery
8. Sabarmati
9. Tapi
10. Brahmani-Baitarani
11. Narmada
12. Pennar
13. Mahi
Indus Basin
• The total length of the river is
3,180 km (1,980 mi) which
makes it one of longest rivers
in Asia.
• It flows through western Tibet,
Indian-controlled Jammu and
Kashmir region and across the
whole length of Pakistan.
• Originating in theTibetan
Plateau in the vicinity of Lake
Mansarovar.
• Drainage area 321289km2
• Culturable area 9638 Th.ha
Ganges Basin
Ganges Basin
The Ganges basin is a part of the Ganges – Brahmaputra
-Meghna basin draining 1,086,000 square kilometres
in Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh. To the north,
the Himalaya or lower parallel ranges beyond form the Ganges-
Brahmaputra divide.
The Origin of the Ganges river is originated from
Gangotri Glacier, Satopanth Glacier, Khatling Glacier, and
waters from melted snow.
Brahmaputra Basin
• The Brahmaputra basin spreads over countries
of Tibet (China), Bhutan, India and
Bangladesh having a total area of 5,80,000
Sq.km.
• In India, it spreads over states of Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya,
Nagaland and Sikkim
• The Brahmaputra River originates in the north
from Kailash ranges of Himalayas
Krishna Basin
• The Krishna Basin extends over Andhra Pradesh,
Maharashtra and Karnataka having a total area of
2,58,948 Sq.km which is nearly 8% of the total
geographical area of the country.
• The basin has a maximum length and width of about
701 km and 672 km.
• The basin has a maximum length and width of about
701 km and 672 km.
• Culturable area 20299 Th.ha
Cauvery Basin
• The Cauvery basin extends over states of Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Union Territory of
Puducherry draining an area of 87,900 Sq.km
• Which is nearly 2.7% of the total geographical area of
the country with a maximum length and width of
about 560 km and 245 km.
• Culturable area 5797Th.ha
• The River Cauvery originates at Talakaveri in Coorg
District of Karnataka in Brahmagiri Range of hills in
the Western ghats.
Pennar Basin
• The Pennar basin extends over states of Andhra
Pradesh and Karnataka having an area of 55,213
Sq.km with maximum length and width of 433 km
and 266 km.
• Culturable area 3551 Th.ha
• The Pennar rises in the Chenna Kasava hill of the
Nandidurg range, in Chikkaballapura district of
Karnataka and flows towards east eventually draining
into the Bay of Bengal.
• The total length of the river from origin to its outfall
in the Bay of Bengal is 597 km.
The Sabarmati basin has a
maximum length of
300 km. and maximum
width of 105 km. The
total catchment area of the
basin is 21674 km2 out of
which, 4124 km2 lies in
Rajasthan State and the
remaining 18550 km2 in
Gujarat. Culturable area
1548 Th.ha
The Mahi is a river in
western India. It rises
in Madhya Pradesh and, after
flowing through
the Vagad region of Rajasthan,
enters Gujarat and flows into
the Arabian Sea. It is one of
three west-flowing rivers in
India. Culturable area 2210
Th.ha. Drainage area 34842
sqkm
Storage
• Portion of the precipitation falling on land surface
which does not flow out as runoff gets stored as either
as surface water bodies like Lakes, Reservoirs and
Wetlands or as sub-surface water body, usually called
Ground water.
• Lakes: Large, naturally occurring inland body of water
• Reservoirs: Artificial or natural inland body of water
used to store water to meet various demands.
• Wet Lands: Natural or artificial areas of shallow water
or saturated soils that contain or could support water–
loving plants.
Some Important Lakes in Tamilnadu
1. Veeranam Lake - 25 Km2 – Cuddalore Dist.
2. Sholavaram Lake – Thiruvallur Dist.
3. Red Hills Lake (Puzhal lake) - 18.21 Km2 – Chennai
Dist.
4. Chembarambakkam Lake - 3,800 Acres – Chennai.
5. Ooty Lake - 3.885 Km2 - Udhagamandalam
6. Kodaikanal Lake – Kodaikanal
7. Berijam Lake - 59 Acres – Dindigul Dist.
8. Singanallur Lake – 1.153 km2 - Coimbatore Dist.
Important Reservoirs in Tamilnadu
Reservoir River Basin Capacity in FRL in Ft. Location
Name MCFT.
Mettur Dam Cauvery 93470 120 Selam Dist.
Bhavani-Sagar Bhavani River 32800 105 Erode dist.
Dam
Amaravathi Amaravathi 4047 110 Tirupur dist.
Dam River
Periyar Dam Mullayar and 10570 152 Idukki Dist.
Periyar River (Kerala)
Vaigai Dam Vaigai River 6091 71 Theni dist.
ManiMuthar Tambaraparani 5511 118 Tirunelveli
Dam River Dist.
Papanasam Local Streams 5500 148 Tirunelveli
Dam Dist.
Pechiparai Dam Perunchani 4450 48 Kanyakumari
Reservoir Dist.
Important Wetlands in Tamilnadu
Name Location Surface Area Covered

Pallikaranai wetland Chennai 80 km2

Suchindram Kulam Kanyakumari Dist. 4.30 km2

Pichavaram Lagoon Cuddalore Dist. 11 km2

Muthupet Lagoon Thiruvarur Dist. 68.03 km2


Bhakra dam

• Type = Concrete Gravity dam


• Area of catchment = 56,876km2
• Rain fall = 70cm
• Design flood discharge = 11,327 m3 /s
• Maximum discharge capacity = 8,372m3 /s(Spill)
• Year of construction = 1963
• Power plant = 1204MW
• Total volume(Eff. Storage) = 719,10,00,000m3
Lower Bhavani dam

• Type = Masonry cum earth dam


• Area of catchment = 4,200km2
• Rain fall = 152.4cm
• Design flood discharge = 4,040 m3 /s
• Maximum discharge capacity = 3,141m3 /s(Spill)
• Year of construction = 1955
• Total volume(Eff. Storage) = 192,82,40,000m3
Krishnaraja sagar dam

• Type = Masonry dam


• Area of catchment = 10.619km2
• Rain fall = 635cm
• Design flood discharge = 8,213 m3 /s
• Maximum discharge capacity = 9,911m3 /s(Spill)
• Year of construction = 1932
• Total volume(Eff. Storage) = 124,42,10,800m3
Mettur dam
Nagarjun sagar dam

• Type = Earth cum Gravity dam


• Area of catchment = 2,15,192km2
• Rain fall = 89cm
• Design flood discharge = 53,450 m3 /s
• Maximum discharge capacity = 53,450 m3/s(Spill)
• Year of construction = 1974
• Power plant = 440MW
• Total volume(Eff. Storage) = 694,00,00,000m3