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Seminar Presentation

on

3G MOBILE TECHNOLOGY
&
APPLICATIONS

Ravneet Singh
M TECH(ECE)
Ravneet Singh
PT/05/115 1
MOBILE COMMUNICATION EVOLUTION

1946- 1960s 1980s 1990s 2000s

Appeared 1G 2G 3G

Analog Digital Digital

Only voice Voice and data Voice and Data


services services possible

Multi Standard Multi Standard Unified Standard

Terrestrial Terrestrial Terrestrial &


Satellite

Ravneet Singh 2
LIMITATIONS OF 2nd GENERATION SYSTEMS

• No Global standards
• No common frequency band
• Low information bit rates
• Low voice quality
• No support of Video
• Various categories of systems to meet specific
requirements

Ravneet Singh 3
THIRD GENERATION (3 G ) STANDARD

INTERNATIONAL MOBILE TELECOM 2000 ( IMT-2000)

3G is the next generation of wireless network technology


that provides high speed bandwidth (high data transfer
rates) to handheld devices. The high data transfer rates will
allow 3G networks to offer multimedia services combining
voice and data.

Ravneet Singh 4
IMT-2000 KEY FEATURES

• SINGLE UNIFIED STANDARD (Data & Multimedia Services)


• ANYWHERE, ANYTIME COMMUNICATION
ACROSS NETWORKS, ACROSS TECHNOLOGIES,
SEAMLESS OPERATION USING A SMALL POCKET
TERMINAL WORLDWIDE.
• HIGH SPEED ACCESS 144KB/S, 384 KB/S & 2MB/S FAST
WIRELESS ACCESS TO INTERNET
• FULL MOTION VIDEOPHONE
• TERRESTRIAL & SATELLITE COMPONETS
• MODULAR DESIGN

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IMT TECHNOLOGIES
ITU has finally narrowed down technology options
to the following five:
• IMT -DS (Direct Spread) : W-CDMA UTRA FDD
• IMT -MC (Multi Carrier) : CDMA 2000
• IMT-TC ( Time Code) : TD -SCDMA UTRA TDD
• IMT -SC ( Single Carrier ) : UWC - 136
• IMT-FT (Frequency Time) : DECT

FURTHER HARMONIZATION In Process


UTRA : UTMS Terrestrial Radio Access
UMTS :Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

Ravneet Singh 6
Why WCDMA ….

• WCDMA for high speed data access up to 384 K bps - 14 Mbps

• Demand for high Speed Data Access


• Streaming
• Video on Demand
• Video Telephony

• Data Revenue is becoming significant

• Operators World wide have shown inclination to introduce

WCDMA

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Evolution from GSM to 3G

3G

EDGE
GPRS
2.5G

HSCSD

GSM
2G

Ravneet Singh 8
3G Data Statistics
2 Mbps
UMTS

384 kbps
115 kbps EDGE
GPRS

9.6 kbps
GSM

1997 2000 2003 2003+

GSM evolution 3G

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Main Network Elements
• Circuit Switched-Core Network consisting of
MSC Server and MGW and is common for both
GSM & WCDMA.
• Packet Core Network consisting of SGSN &
GGSN and is common for both GSM & WCDMA
networks.
• Radio Network shall be separate for both GSM &
WCDMA.
• Radio Network- GSM: BSC, BTS and WCDMA:
RNC, Node B

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3G Architecture (UMTS)
2G MS (voice only)
CN

BSS

E PSTN
Abis
A
PSTN
B
BSC C
MSC GMSC
Gb D
BTS VLR
Gs
SS7
H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
IuCS
RNS
Gr HLR
AuC
ATM Gc
Iub
IuPS
Gn Gi
PSDN
RNC IP
SGSN GGSN
Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
BSS Base Station System CN Core Network SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
BTS Base Transceiver Station MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
BSC Base Station Controller VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

RNS Radio Network System AuC Authentication Server


RNC Radio Network Controller Ravneet
GMSC Gateway MSC Singh 11
GSM to GPRS to EDGE

• GSM can be upgraded for higher data rate upto 115 Kbps through
deploying GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network.This
requires addition of two core modules
– SGSN (Serving GPRS Service Node)
– GGSN (Gateway GPRS Service Node)
• GSM radio access network is connected to SGSN through suitable
interfaces.
• GPRS phase-II will support higher data rates up to 384 Kbps
through incorporating EDGE ( Enhanced Data Rate for GSM
Evolution).

Ravneet Singh 12
GSM to 3G
• Further, to support data rates up to 2 Mbps, Third Generation
radio access network (3G RAN)
• W-CDMA is deployed. 3G RAN is connected to GSM
MSC for circuit oriented services and to SGSN for packet
oriented services (internet access). Therefore the migration
path can be represented as :
• GSM GPRS W-CDMA.

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Key Requirements of 3G Services
Improved system capacity.

Backward compatibility with second generation ( 2G )


systems.
Multimedia support.

High speed Packet data services.

Data Rates up-to 2 Mbps – for fixed or Indoor Environments.

Data Rates up-to 384 kbps – for pedestrian or urban


Environments.

Data Rates up-to 144 kbps – for wide area mobile


Environments.
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•Always-on connection with users paying only
when sending
or receiving packets.
• Web surfing.
• Instant messaging and email with multimedia
attachments.
• Location based services.
• Personalized services, where content can be
pushed to users.
• Broadband multimedia data services like video
conferencing
and streaming video.
• Receiving faxes.
• Global roaming capability.
• Getting maps and directions with a multi-modal
user
interface.
• Customized entertainment.
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• Simultaneous access to multiple services, each
Potential Killer
Applications

The high bandwidth of 3G networks will lead to the


creation of new services, some of which we have
no idea about at this time. In 2G networks, the big
winners have been short text messaging in GSM
networks (Europe and countries other than USA)
and image downloads and forwarding on iMode
networks in Japan.
Two candidate services for big winners in 3G
networks are
• video conferencing and
Ravneet Singh 16
GSM to UMTS

Abis A
GSM GSM GSM PSTN,
BTS BSC MSC ISDN

Gb Service
Creation/
Gs Mgmt.

Iubis Iu-r
GPRS
Integrated
GPRS
Integrated
UMTS UMTS PDN,
UMTS
UMTSCore
Core
Core
Core
BTS BSC (e.g. Internet)
Iu Other
UMTS Access Network
PLMN
GSM Elements
UMTS Elements

Ravneet Singh 17
Typical 2G Architecture

PSDN
BSC
BTS

BSC HLR SMS-SC

BSC
MSC/VLR
PLMN
MSC/VLR
BSC
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
GMSC

Tandem PSTN Tandem


CO CO

CO MSC Mobile Switching Center


VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register

Ravneet Singh 18
2.5G Architectural Detail
2G MS (voice only)
NSS

BSS

E PSTN
Abis
A
PSTN
B
BSC C
MS MSC GMSC
D
BTS VLR
Gs
SS7
H
Gb
2G+ MS (voice & data)
Gr HLR
AuC
Gc

Gn Gi
PSDN
SGSN IP GGSN

BSS Base Station System NSS Network Sub-System SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
BTS Base Transceiver Station MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
BSC Base Station Controller VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register GPRS General Packet Radio Service
AUC Authentication Server
Ravneet
GMSC Gateway MSC Singh 19
Main Components of WCDMA Network

• Control Layer
•MSC-VLR / MSC Server
• Connectivity Layer
•Media Gateway
• Access Network
• Radio Network Controller
• Node B
• Back Bone
Ravneet Singh 20
Ravneet Singh 21
3G Architecture (UMTS)
2G MS (voice only)
CN

BSS

E PSTN
Abis
A
PSTN
B
BSC C
MSC GMSC
Gb D
BTS VLR
Gs
SS7
H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
IuCS
RNS
Gr HLR
AuC
ATM Gc
Iub
IuPS
Gn Gi
PSDN
RNC IP
SGSN GGSN
Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
BSS Base Station System CN Core Network SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
BTS Base Transceiver Station MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
BSC Base Station Controller VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

RNS Radio Network System AuC Authentication Server


RNC Radio Network Controller Ravneet
GMSC Gateway MSC Singh 22
RNC : Main Functionalities
• Manage and secure an optimal usage of the radio
resources of the radio access network

• Control the mobility and handover within the radio


access network

• RNC provide Handover functions between WCDMA RAN


and GSM, and Cell Change between WCDMA RAN
and GSM/GPRS

• Support radio access bearer (RAB) services with: Circuit


Switched and Packet Switched data

Ravneet Singh 23
RNC : Main Functionalities
• Provide a transparent bearer service for control message
between the Core Network and the User Equipment (UE)
(direct transfer)

• Support control functions for paging of UEs, Signalling


Connection handling and Radio Access Bearer service
handling
• Provide element management functions

Ravneet Singh 24
Node B : Main Functionalities
• Provides radio interface to the UE
• Transceiver Units and Dedicated Power Amplifiers for every sector
• Executes power control to minimize interference
• Automatic calibration of Power Amplifiers and Transceivers for
normal operation or when changing a spare part
• Common baseband capacity for all sectors
• Asymmetric pooling of uplink and downlink Channel Elements for
flexible services
• ATM multiplexing for transmission

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Main MSC Server functions

• Service control
• Mobility management
• Charging control and CDR generation
• Can control more than one MGW

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Media Gateway
• Speech & media processing
• Setup/release of user data bearers
• Interfacing between different transport standards
• Boundary between different networks
• Can be controlled by several MSC Servers

Ravneet Singh 27
Evolution To W-CDMA
Adding GPRS Data
GSM Network New
Terminal
New cell sites
New cell sites New
BTS (in some (in some cases)W-CDMA
BTS BTS
BTS cases) Equipment
01010New Software BTS & Software
01010
New Software
New
New New Software
Terminal New Software
Terminal
BSC Upgrade 0101
01010
New New
SGSN SGSN
0
EquipmentEquipment
3G
BSC Upgrade SGSN
BSCBSC
Software 01010BSC
W-CDMA
Software 01010
Upgrade
Upgrade BSC
GPRS GPRS 3G Data
Backbone
Backbone Backbone

New
MSC New New
MSC Software New
0101
001010
GGSN modified
Equipment
New 3G
& Software
01010 Software GGSN router modified GGSN
Modem
Software router
Pool Modem
Upgrade Pool
IP
PSTN BackboneIP
PSTN Backbone
WWW VPN
Enterprise
WWW Network VPN
Enterprise Network
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WCDMA Specifications

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NEAR FAR EFFECT

Uplink: Because of different attenuation signals to/from users nearer to BS are


stronger than signals to/from further located users.

Received power at BS

Received power at BS
M
S M M M
M S S S
1 M
S 1 2 3
Radio tower 2 S
3

Without Power Control With Power Control

Downlink: Beacause of the nature of attenuation at the cell border the users
experience higher interference that near to the BS. They have high level of
interfering signals from own BS and from other BS.
The Code Domain
Baseband BW Spread Spread BW Baseband
Factor BW

0 fc fc 0
CDMA CDMA
Transmitte Receiver
Baseband r
Encoding & Walsh/OVS Walsh/OVS Decode & Baseband
Data Interleavin F F De- Data
g Spreading Correlator Interleaving

KTBF function Spurious Spread BW Spread BW


Signals

fc fc fc fc
Background External Other Cell InterferenceOther User
Noise Interference Noise
Interference Sources
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Purpose of Power Control in WCDMA
Amplitude
• Removes near far effect.
• Mitigates fading.
Time
• Compensates changes in propagation conditions.
• In the system level
– decrease interference from other users
– increase capacity of the system

• Uplink
Power control in uplink must make signal powers from different users nearly
equal in order to maximise the total capacity in the cell.
• Downlink
In downlink the power control must keep the signal at minimal required level in
order to decrease the interference to users in other cells.
PowerControl Types in WCDMA
• Open Loop power control: for initial power setting of MS
Transmitter

Channel
Across the air interface Source
Encoder Encoder
Modulation

Multiple access
• Fast closed loop power control: Channel
interference

C/I target Noise


– Mitigates fast fading rate 1.5 kbps. Receiver
Power
Source Channel control
– On UL and DL. Decoder decoder Demodulation

– Usesa fixed quality target set in MS/BS.


FER BER C/I

• Outer loop powercontrol:


– Compensates changes in environment.
– Adjust the SIR target to achieve the required FER/BER/BLER.
– Depends on: MS speed available, multipath diversity.
– In the soft handover comes after frame selection.
WCDMAHANDOVERS

• Avoidance of near far situation for circuit switched connections


– for high mobility users shadow fading+ (slow) hard handovers would create near
far situations.
• Soft/Softer handovers will improve cell capacity (around 40-60 %)
• Soft/Softer provide macrodiversity gain: compared the hard handover larger
cell range.
– Gain against shadow fading(1-3dB).
– Gains against fast fading, typically 0.5-2dB assumed.
• Soft/Softer essential interference mitigating tool.
SOFTER HANDOVER

• MS in overlapping cell coverage area of


two adjacent sectorsofaBS.
• Communication between MS and BS is
via two air interface channels (one for
each separate sector).
• Different sectors have different
scrambling codes.
• UL: MS tunes the RAKE fingers to
different sectors and combines the
Radio tower
outputs.
• DL: BS receives signals with different
antennas and decodes and combines
them.
SOFT HANDOVER
• User has at the same time connection to more than one BS.
• Except PC bits exactly the same information is sent via air interface.
• Soft handover probability 20-40 %.
• UL/DL processing different.
– MS: At Rake Maximal Ratio Combining of signals from different BS.
– BS: Frame selection. Extra transmission across Iub.

o
i nf
it y
abil
e reli Radio tower
m
Fra
CN

Fra
m e re
RNC liab
i lity
i nf
o

Radio tower
Codes in W-CDMA
• Chananelization codes ( OVSF codes ) :
 Length is dependent on Spreading Factor.
 Used for channel separation from a single source.
 Same codes in every cell / mobiles and therefore additional
Scrambling Codes are needed.
• Scrambling Codes :
 Length is longer than Channelization codes.
 In Downlink used to separate different cells/sector.
 In Uplink used to separate different mobiles.
• Synchronization Codes :
 Consists of 1 primary and 16 Secondary codes.
 Primary Synchronization Ravneet Singh
code allocated is same for all cells. 37
LIMITATIONS OF 3G
• 3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of
future high-performance applications like multi-media,
full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. We need a
network technology that extends 3G capacity by an order
of magnitude.
• There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to
roam and interoperate across networks. we need global
mobility and service portability .
• 3G is based on primarily a wide-area concept. We need
hybrid networks that utilize both wireless LAN (hot spot)
concept and cell or base-station wide area network
design.
• We need wider bandwidth.
• Researchers have come up with spectrally more efficient
modulation schemes that can not be retrofitted into 3G
infrastructure. Ravneet Singh 38
ISSUES IN DEPLOYING 3G
• The cost of upgrading base stations and cellular
infrastructure to 3G is very high.
• Requires different handsets and there is the issue of
handset availability. 3G handsets will be a complex
product. Roaming and making both data/voice work
has not yet been demonstrated. Also the higher
power requirements (more bits with the same
energy/bit) demand a larger handset, shorter talk
time, and larger batteries).

• Base stations need to be closer to each other (more


cost).

• Tremendous spectrum-license costs, network


deployment costs, handset subsidies to subscribers,
etc.
Ravneet Singh 39
3G Partnership Project (3GPP)
 3GPP defining migration from GSM to UMTS
(W-CDMA)
 Core network evolves from GSM-only to support
GSM, GPRS and new W-CDMA facilities
 3GPP Release 99
 Adds 3G radios
 3GPP Release4
 Adds softswitch/ voice gateways and packet core
 3GPP Release5
 First IP Multimedia Services (IMS) w/ SIP& QoS
 3GPP Release6
 “All IP” network; contents of r6 still being defined
References
1. Clint Smith, Daniel Collins. "3G Wireless Networks",
2. ITU. "What really is a Third Generation (3G) Mobile
Technology" (PDF).
3. ITU-D Study Group 2. "Guidelines on the smooth
transition of existing mobile networks to IMT-2000 for
developing countries (GST) 5. Qualcomm halts UMB
project, Reuters, November 13th, 2008
4. "The history of UMTS and 3G development".
http://www.umtsworld.com/umts/history.htm.
5. "DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch".
http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2001/04/43253.
6. "T-Mobile 3G Network Expansion: List of U.S. Cities
Going 3G in 2008".
http://www.intomobile.com/2009/05/20/t-mobile-3g-
network-expansion-list-ofus- cities-going-3g-in-2009.html.
7. "Cellular Standards for the Third Generation". ITU. 2005-
12-01.
http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/imt-2000
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THANK YOU

Ravneet Singh 42