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CT SCANNER

GENERATIONS!!!
HUSHILI ACHUMI
M.SC. MIT
OBJECTIVES OF THIS LESSON

• TO UNDERSTAND AND DIFFERENTIATE AMONG THE GENERATIONS OF:


 the principles and composition of the machine
 the different methods and materials used
 the shortcomings that had to be eliminated through.
• WHY CT HAD TO BE DEVELOPED AND IMPROVED?
• After this ppt, one should be able to clearly comprehend the STRUCTURE AND THE
MECHANICAL SYSTEM of each generation.
DEFINITION OF GENERATION.

• Classification of computed tomography (CT) based upon: arrangement of components


and mechanical motion required to collect data
• “Generation” the order in which CT scanner design has been introduced, and each has a
number associated with it y
• NOTE: higher generation number NOT a higher performance system
1ST GENERATION: ROTATE/TRANSLATE,
PENCIL BEAM- 1971.

• About 1-2 detectors used.


• Parallel Ray Geometry- 80x80 matrix.
• Specifically for brain imaging.
• Head was enclosed in a water-filled perspex bath that was kept below the x-ray tube and above the detector.
It was used to act as a bolus for the large change in signal, due to increased x-ray flux outside the head.
• Translate (x-ray beam on)/rotate acquisition(off)- translates across Pt and rotates around the Pt.
• X-ray tubes were able to rotate only 180˚ at 1˚ intervals due to the cable wires that were attached for power
supply and data transferring- making 160 projections before starting the translate/rotate motion.
• About 4.5mins/slice- so a total of about 30 mins to scan the brain.
• Pencil beam was achieved through pin hole collimators, filtered by 6mm Al.eq. Allowed less scatter radiation.
• Operated at 120KVp and 33 mA.
2ND GENERATION: TRANSLATE/ROTATE,
NARROW FAN BEAM- 1972

• Incorporated a linear array of 8-30 detectors, hence needed beam wider than
the pencil beam- a 10˚ fan beam sensitive to scatter radiation.
• NaI detectors.
• Translate/rotate acquisition.
• Reduced 2-3 mins and 15 times faster than the 1st gen. fastest was 18sec/slice.
• Rotational motion was increased to 30˚ at the end of each linear motion-
thereby only six times rotation rather than 180˚.
• Increase in the number of projections and data/per projection.
3RD GENERATION: ROTATE/ROTATE, WIDER FAN
BEAM- 1975.
• Increase in no:of detectors (upto about 750) with rotate/rotate acquisition.
• Slip ring technology was introduced.
• Fan angle- 50˚-60˚.
• Xenon and scintillation crystals used as detectors.
• Detectors in curvi-linear arcconstant source to detector path length better x-ray collimation
reducing scatter radiation.
• Image was produced in 9 secs.
• Ring artifacts impossible to have a large no:of detectors in perfect balance with each other during
continuous rotation.
WHAT IT’S LIKE INSIDE THE GANTRY!!!
LET’S SUM UP THE GENERATIONS!!!
THANK YOU!!!