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# STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

## Ms. Yllana Pauline B. de Jesus

Introduction to Statistics

situations.”
Questions- Set A

##  • How old is our teacher?

 • Is the vehicle of the Mayor of our
city/town/municipality bigger than the vehicle used
by the President of the Philippines?
 • How many days are there in December?
 • Does the Head Master of the school has a post
 • What is the weight of my smallest classmate?
Questions- Set B
 How old are the people residing in our town?
 Do dogs eat more than cats?
 • Does it rain more in our country than in Thailand?
 • Do math teachers earn more than science teachers?
 • How many books do my classmates usually bring
to school?
 • What is the proportion of Filipino children aged 0
to 5 years who are underweight or overweight for
their age?
SET A
 Could be answered by a piece of
information which is considered always true
 There is a correct answer which is based on
a fact
 Don’t need the process of inquiry to answer
this kind of questions.
SET B
 Needs observation or data to be able to respond
to the question
 Need to get the observations or responses of all
the concerned person to be able to answer the
question (in some questions)
 Need to get observations from all those
concerned or you get representative groups
from which you gather your data.
STATISTICS

##  A science that studies data.

 Using data to find answer or a solution
to a problem or an inquiry.
 Used in DECISION-MAKING.
STATISTICS

##  It is the process of conducting

studies to collect data, organize
and present data, analyze data,
and interpret data.
History of Statistics
 Trivia:
 The word “statistics” actually comes from the word “state”
 because governments have been involved in the statistical
activities, especially the conduct of censuses either for
military or taxation purposes.
 The need for and conduct of censuses are recorded in the
pages of holy texts.
 In the Christian Bible, particularly the Book of Numbers,
God is reported to have instructed Moses to carry out a
census. Another census mentioned in the Bible is the
census ordered by Caesar Augustus throughout the entire
Roman Empire before the birth of Christ.
Reflections:
 Describe a situation in your life as a student in which
you could find the application of Statistics? Explain
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Assignment:
 On a One Whole Yellow Paper, research
1. What is random variable?
2. What are the classifications of random
variable?
3. Define each random variable.
PROBABILITY
 How likely something is to happen.
 Many events can't be predicted with total
certainty. The best we can say is how likely they
are to happen, using the idea of probability.

 Example:
 Tossing a coin
 Throwing Dice
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY THEORY
 Statistics is intimately linked to probability
theory.You can use statistics to work out the
probability, the chance, that a certain event will
occur.

##  Probability theory is important when it comes to

evaluating statistics.
Example 1:
If in am opinion poll you find that 80% of the
people you asked liked the current Prime Minister, it is
very tempting to conclude that the Prime Minister is
very popular.
You use probability theory to calculate the
probability that your result occurred by chance — if this
probability is very small, then you should conclude that
the Prime Minister is not that popular.
 Example 2:
 If you want to know the chance that your
holiday plane will crash, you think of how
many planes usually crash within a year. Since
this number is very small, you deduce that the
chance of your plane crashing is small also.
You've done a very simple statistical analysis
of the data concerning plane crashes and used
it to work out a probability.
Random Variables
 A random variable, usually
written as X, is a variable
whose possible values are
numerical outcomes of a
random phenomenon.

##  • There are two types of

random variables, discrete
random variables and
continuous random variables.
Random Variable
 Let's give them the values Heads=0 and Tails=1 and we
have a Random Variable "X":
 In short:

X = {0, 1}
Not Like an Algebra Variable
 In Algebra a variable, like x, is an unknown value:
 Example: x + 2 = 6
In this case we can find that x=4
 But a Random Variable is different ...
A Random Variable has a whole set of values ...
... and it could take on any of those values, randomly.

 Example: X = {0, 1, 2, 3}
X could be 0, 1, 2, or 3 randomly.
And they might each have a different probability.
Capital Letters

##  We use a capital letter, like X or Y, to avoid confusion

with the Algebra type of variable.
Sample Space
 A Random Variable's set of values is the Sample
Space.
 Example: Throw a die once
Random Variable X = "The score shown on the
top face".
X could be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6
So the Sample Space is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
CLASSIFICATIONS OF RANDOM
VARIABLES

##  Continuous Random Variables

Discrete Random Variables
 A discrete random variable is one which may take
on only a countable number of distinct values
such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,....

##  Discrete random variables are usually (but not

necessarily) counts.

 Example:????
Examples:
 • number of children in a family
 • the number of patients a doctor sees.
 • the number of defective light bulbs in
 • the number of “heads” flipped in 3 trials
Continuous Random Variables

##  • A continuous random variable is

one which takes an infinite number of
possible values.

##  • Continuous random variables are

usually measurements.
 Examples: ???????
Example:

 – height
 – weight
 – the amount of sugar in an orange
 – the time required to run a mile.
 -- Age