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Curriculum Vitae

Nama : Samsul Maarif


Tgl Lahir : Gresik 06 Mei 1972
Status : Menikah, 1 orang Istri, 2 anak
Alamat : Jl Sampurna 74 Malang
Email : samsulmaarifmlg@yahoo.com

Pekerjaan : Staf Perawat IBS RS Islam Aisyiyah Malang


Ketua Komite Keperawatan RS Islam Aisyiyah Malang
Dosen Tamu pada FIKES Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
Dosen Tamu pada D IV Kep Periop POLTEKKES Negeri Malang

Organisasi : Ketua Cabang HIPKABI Malang Raya


Anggota Bid Diklat & Pengembangan SDM PD HIPKABI JATIM
Ketua Tim Keperawatan Majelis Kesehatan Muhammadiyah
Jawa Timur
Antiseptic Agents
Samsul Maarif
Skin cannot be sterilized, it is mechanically
cleansed and chemically decontaminated
to reduce skin flora
The ideal agents Should have the following
preferred qualities :

 It has broad spectrum antimicrobial action


 It can be fast acting and remains effective
against microorganisms
 It can be safely used without skin irritation and it
should be non toxic
 It effectively ramains active in the presence of
organic matter, soap or detergents
 It should be non flammable
Chlorhexidine Gluconate

FDA-Approved for Four Indications

 Preoperative patient skin preparation


 Surgical hand scrub
 Healthcare personnel handwashing
 General skin and wound cleanser
Mechanism of CHX
Advantage

 Fast-Acting Antimicrobial Action


Proven short contact times on listed test standards
 Broad-Spectrum Efficacy
Effiacy against Gram negative and Gram positive, fungi, MRSA,
multiple MDROs and proven to reduce C.difficile, It is inactive
against bacterial spores except at elevated temperatures
 Persistent Antimicrobial Action
Because of its cationic nature, chlorhexidine binds strongly to skin,
and has a persistent antibacterial effect for up to six hours
 Gentle for Patients and Staff
Disadvantages

 Induce hypersensitivity
 Irritant to the eyes, the brain, meningen and middle ear
 Chlorhexidine is interfered in the presence of soap,
shampoo and other anionic agents
Iodophor

Iodophor are iodine complex that combine with


polymer such as surfactant or povidone (forming
povidone-iodine), increase solubility of iodine,
promote sustained release of iodine and reduce skin
irritation
Free iodine, slowly released from the povidone-iodine
complex, kills micro-organism cells through iodination of
lipids and oxidation of cytoplasmic, so the micro-
organism dies
 Iodine is a mineral found in some foods. The body needs
iodine to make thyroid hormones. These hormones control
the body's metabolism and many other important
functions.
 The US recommended daily intake of iodine is 150
micrograms (mcg) per day for most adults, and about
twice that for pregnant and nursing women.
Advantages

 In the presence of surfactant or povidone, Iodophors are


excellent cleansing agents that remove debris from skin
surfaces
 Iodophors are relatively non toxic and virtually non
irritating to skin and mucous membrane
 Persistent Antimicrobial Action
The brown film left on the skin after aplication should not
be wipped off, because microbial activity is sustained by
the release of free iodine
Disadvantages

 Induce hypersensitifity, povidone iodine should not be


used to prep the skin of patient who are allergic to iodine
or sea food
Alcohol

Alcohols denature proteins by breaking the hydrogen bonds


that link oppositely charged hydrogen and oxygen atoms
on different parts of the chain-like molecules
Advantage

 Alcohol is broad spectrum antiseptic agents


 A 70% concentration with continous contact for several
minutes is satisfactory for skin antisepsis, when the a
colorless antisepsis is preferred to permits observation of
true skin color
Disadvantages

 Alcohol evaporate quickly, so that they do not leave


the skin for long, it means that the effect just short time
after aplication, for this reason.
 Some bacteria can go into a dormant phase known as a
spore when conditions are unfavorable for growth and
multiplication, becoming active again when conditions
improve. Alcohols generally do not kill them
Disadvantage

 Because alcohol coagulates protein, it is not


applied to mucous membranes or used on an
open wound
 It is volatile and fammable, it must not pool
around or under the patient, especially if an
electrosurgical unit or laser will be used
References

 Association of Surgical Technologist, Standards of Practice for skin prep of


the Surgical Patients, 2008
 Gary J Kaplowitz, Chlorhexidine a multifunctional antimicrobial drug, 2005
 Micah L Hemani, Skin Preparation for the prevention of surgical site
infection, 2009