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Shields Regents Chemistry U07 L01

Forces of attraction
There exist between Molecules of gases and liquids
Forces of attraction.

Some forces may be strong

other forces may be weak.

Forces of attraction
It’s these forces of attraction that ultimately determine
How easy or difficult it is for Gases to coalesce into
Liquids and liquids to
solidify into solids.

These forces of
attraction will, for
example, determine
a liquids boiling point.
Forces of Attraction
What are the forces of attraction we’re talking about?

For gases and liquids these forces are of two types:

intermolecular - between molecules

intramolecular - within the molecule

Intramolecular forces involve the formation of true

chemical bonds
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
Intramolecular forces of attraction are much stronger
Than intermolecular forces

- on the order of 30 – 400x stronger

Intermolecular forces of attraction are also known as

van der Waals forces

So how many types of intermolecular or van der Waals

forces of attraction exist?

Let’s take a look …

Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

There are three types of intermolecular forces:

1. London Dispersion force

(sometimes called induced dipole force*)

2. Dipole-Dipole force

3. Hydrogen bond

NYS Regents also refers (incorrectly) to induced dipole

IMF as “Van Der Waal’s”
Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
As we mentined before Intermolecular forces are much
weaker than intramolecular (i.e. chemical bond) forces

And … Intermolecular forces also vary in strength from

one another:

Dispersion Weakest (<1 Kcal)

Dipole-dipole Stronger (2-5 Kcal)
Hydrogen bond The Strongest (12-16 Kcal)

(for comparison, a true covalent bond is about 400Kcal)

Intermolecular Forces of Attraction
Intermolecular forces hold molecules
together in the Solid & Liquid phase &
Allow gases to condense on cooling.

They also prevent instantaneous

evaporation from occurring.

Strong Attractive forces between

molecules also make Vaporization
(L  G) phase changes more
Dispersion Forces
Dispersion forces, the weakest force, is sometimes called
LONDON Dispersion Forces or induced dipole forces

- They result when there is a momentary shift in

electron density within the molecules electron cloud


Non-polar molecules Formation of

Temporary Dipoles

This intermolecular force is the predominant

intermolecular force for non-polar compounds
Non-polar compounds are molecules that do not have
a permanent charge distribution within the Molecule.

How does this shift happen? 10

δ -δ+ δ -δ+ δ- δ+ δ -δ+
The larger the molecule the more easily δ charges develop
Dispersion Forces
As we said before Non-polar compounds are molecules
that do not have a permanent charge distribution within
The Molecule.

Molecules that have an even electron distribution

Are typically 1) single atoms, 2) molecules of the same
element, 3) hydrocarbons 4) symmetrical molecules

For example: Ne, Kr, H2, O2, N2, S8, C3H8, CCl4, CO2
Dispersion forces
Induced Dipole forces become stronger the larger the
Atom or Molecule.

- larger electron clouds are easier to deform

One might expect the boiling pt. of compounds to

be low for compounds that interact by this type of force.

The minimal force holding these Molecules together

Allow them to move readily from the liquid
Phase into the gas phase. Or even from the solid phase
to gas phase - like I2 14
CH4 C8H18

Smaller molecule Larger molecule

Dispersion forces
If Molecules have High BP’s they will have Low VP
(and conversely Low Bp’s mean High VP)

Since dispersion forces increase with increasing

Molecular weight the Trend for non-polar compounds is…
increasing BP with increasing MW .

(this trend is also true with melting pts/freezing pts; as

MW inc so does mp/fp)
Low MW Higher MW

Low BP Higher BP
Low dispersion force higher dispersion force

Let’s look at some bp data… 16

Dispersion forces
Which member of each pair should have the higher B.P.
(and thus the stronger Induced dipole)

N2, O2
O2 – Higher MW B.P: O2 -183.0 C / N2 -195.6 C
larger molecule

Ne, Kr
Kr - Higher MW B.P: Kr -152.9 C / Ne -245.9 C
Larger Atom

F2, Cl2
Cl2 – Higher MW B.P: Cl2 -34.6 C / F2 -187 C
Larger Molecule

C3H8 (propane), C4H10 (butane)

Butane (larger) B.P: C4H10 -0.5 C / C3H8 -42.1 C
M.P: -134.4 C -187.7
Dipole- Dipole Forces
Molecules that have permanent dipoles are said to be

What does it mean to be a polar molecule?

One area is always positive and another part of the

Molecule is always negative

An example of a
Polar molecule is HCl

Dipole-Dipole Forces
Dipole- Dipole forces are stronger than London
dispersion forces (<1 Kcal vs. 2-5 Kcal)

- In this intermolecular force

Dipoles are always present
as opposed to constantly
forming and reforming
dipoles in weaker Dispersion
force molecules

Hydrogen Bond Forces
The hydrogen bond is a special form of the
Dipole-Dipole force, its not really a true chemical bond.

- It is the strongest intermolecular force

- much stronger than either Dipole-Dipole

Or Dispersion forces.

However It can ONLY exist when a Hydrogen atom

is present in the molecule AND it’s bonded to …

- Either a N, O, or F atom also present in the

same molecule.
Hydrogen bonds
In all compounds that form H-bonds the
Hydrogen atom is ALWAYS the Positive Dipole.

O, F, or N is ALWAYS the negative


As one molecule approaches

another the positive Hydrogen +
aligns with the negative O, F, or N.
+ - 21
Hydrogen bonds
All Hydrogen bonds are stronger than either
Dispersion or dipole-dipole interactions.

However, among molecules with

Hydrogen bonds there are some that
Are stronger than others.

How do we determine what H-bonds

Are the strongest?

Strength of H-bond: F>O>>N

The Hydrogen Bond
Examples of compounds that can form H-bonds are:

Water, Methyl or Ethyl Alcohol, HF, NH3

Water Alignment during formation
of the H-Bond

Positive aligns to negative

Water molecules in ice align to form a repeating hexagon

Hydrogen Bonds
Compounds that form Hydrogen bonds take a lot
more energy to move molecules from the liquid phase
Into the gas phase.

Molecules of similar molecular weight without the

Ability to form H-bonds have higher vapor pressures
And thus lower B.P.
Compound Molar Mass B.P. deg C
H-bond H20 18 + 100
H-bond NH3 17 - 33
Non-polar CH4 16 - 164
These compounds form H-Bonds



Theoretical B.P dec. MW

Of Water

If F forms stronger H bonds than O why is the BP of

Water higher than HF? (Hint: Consider the Mol. Structure)