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Patterns

of
Developmen
t
T E R
P S K A O H L
R B Y
T P C E O V P
A E L R N O Y
L V R I T C W E
I E D A S V N S
N A R R A T E
R G T K O I R S I
A Y M A S N E H T
S I
K L L
Y I G N L
EK S P A L
skil
l
N A R R A T I O N
vivi
event narrat d
e
I. Narration
- the most basic pattern of
development
-describes how, when, and
where an
event or occurrence actually
happened

-used to tell a story or focus on a


set of
Components of Narrative Text
1. Logical Actions
- are considered the very
movements within the plot
or the narrative that drive
the characters forward, be
it during the dialogue, or
within a scene
Example
It was late spring the last time we saw
Ross. He was standing at the edge of the hill, and
he never so much as looked up even though
we were sure he knew we were there. There
was a bunch of flowers clutched to his fist, but
there really was no reason for him to be standing
there. We knew that Carrie wasn't coming to see
him. But he stood there anyway, waiting, even
as the afternoon sunlight deepened towards
the evening. He must have been standing there
for hours.
2. Way of Narration
-refers to how the writer presents the
story
-includes the pace by which scenes
are given out
* Having natural progression of
time to the events of the story
makes a good writing.
Clipped Narration
“He came and talked to us. Then he left the
house and then he drove the car back home.

Paced Narration
“He came and talked to us for a few moments.
He seemed upset, but he managed to
get through all the bad news. Shaking our
hands before he left the house come
twilight, he seemed to feel better now that he
had delivered the news. He waved from the
car as he pulled out of the driveway,
narrowly missing the mailbox again, and
3. Terminology
- places emphasis on the fact that
concepts are critical to the narration

* Writers must choose how to address


terms and which ones they want to
use in order to create an appropriate
setting.
- words that identify things, places,
and events that can be measured
and observed
- terms that have physical
manifestation in our world
Examples:
spoon, dog, house
Abstract Terms
- refer to ideas or concepts that are
intangible

Examples:
love, freedom, feminism
General Terms
- commonly used to denote groups
Example: furniture
Specific Terms
- refer to an individual
component of the group
Examples:
cabinets, desks, chairs
Concrete: “He was shivering violently
from the cold.”

Abstract: “The joy in the air was


palpable.”
General: “He gave her a piece of
jewelry.”
Specific: “Each green stone had fire in
its facets.”
Writing Activity

Write a narrative text about a


time in your life when you
experienced an emotion strongly.
Try to
give as much detail as
possible.
Rubric

Focus 30
Organization %
Integration 25
Convention %
25

20
D E T A I L
R E M H G T N A
L S P D U B TI
S E N S O R Y
O N A S O Y D N I
G R C E A T L U S
L O O K
Y O E M K
AE O L SN I F C
Q U A L I T Y
U C A E Q S A C Y
I E L K O T R D H
R E A L I S T I C
I L U A P R E C M S
T E R S I B A T E
qualit
y
D E S C R I P T I O N
realisti
sensory loo c
k
II. Description
- the pattern of development which
goes into details about a specific object,
person, or location, in order to firmly
set its appearance

What does it look like?


What are its characteristics?
Characteristics of Description
● has a clear focus and sense of
purpose

● uses sensory details and precise


words

● presents details in a logical order


Varieties of Description
1. Objective Description

- looks into factual and


scientific characteristics of
what is being described as
objectively as possible

* The writer stays away


from emotional impressions or
Example
The Acer barbatum is a small to medium-sized,
deciduous tree usually ranging from 15 to 25
m. (50 to 80 ft.) tall when mature. Its bark is
light gray and smooth on younger trees, and it
becomes ridged and furrowed with age. Leaves
are opposite and shallowly to deeply palmately
lobed, with a few blunt teeth but no serrations.
The leaf sinuses are rounded, unlike those of
red maple (Acer rubrum) which are sharply V-
shaped. Also, the sides of terminal leaf lobes
are more or less parallel, while those of red
maple are widest at the base, tapering to the tip.
2. Subjective Description
-a sort of description that the
author would normally use to
“paint a picture” of how he sees a
character, or how he wants the
reader to see a character
-also used in a literary discourse
when there is stereotyped image
that can be attributed to a
Example
My mother had hair so dark
that it looked like a waterfall of ink.
She always kept it in a braid that fell
to her slim waist, and always tied
with a plain black band. The braid of
black slung over her shoulder, the
plaits shining like scales.
Writing Activity
(Group)
You are a writer of a
travel magazine. The
editor of the magazine
asks you to write a
travel article that tells
about a beautiful place
where one
can spend a vacation.
Rubric

Focus 30
Organization %
Integration 25
Convention %
25

20
M E A N I N G
N I E T I N W A F
D O R M E G C S I
I N F O R M
T F B U N E L S
M S R I K H A
O
E L A B O R A T E
L A N P B U G T O
R I X E C S A D E
E N L I G H T E N
T P L N O G I X E
I C H E U N B A N
R O V E R S Y
C O N T
T Y N C G I N M O R
O U E B
D E F I N I T I O N
controvers
inform
y
III. Definition
- explains not just what something
means or is, but also what something
does, what something is used for, what
something looks like, etc
Varieties of Definition

1. Scientific Definition

- defines concepts in the


most factual way, which is
often used in scientific,
proper, or real world facts
The term could be emphasized by the
following:

1. Characteristics or
features
2. Function
3. Effect
4. Origin
Signal Words for Definition

is defined as means to define

as defined refers to to illustrate


Writing Activity
(Group)
Specific Definition: You are a
medicine student. You would
like to write about the
definition of a controversial
medical term in your blog.
The criteria in assessing your
blog are its appeal to the
readers, accuracy of
information, and adherence to
the style of format.
C A T E G O R Y
D A V E S I T O
G I R C N I X Y
E X A M P L E
A T S G N X A R L
E L E I T P O S M
C R I T E R I A
I D A Y R L U O E
A Q C I N T R I S
I L L U S T R A T I O N
I L M G L K U F A S
T C A I N R H E T O
criteria
IV.Classification and Exemplification

Classification

-divides things into


groups, classes, or
categories

-organizes ideas
into divisions based
on criteria or standards
Exemplification
-provides examples and
illustrations in order to
further clarify or explain
the concept or subject
matter
-presents the general
statement and then
Signal Words for Classification
another classified one kind the last
as group

another final type the first the next


kind category part
Signal Words for Exemplification
after all for instance namely that is

as an in other put another to be


example words way specific
consider the in particular specifically to clarify
following
for example in short stated to illustrate
differently
Example
Dogs are domesticated animals that have
been living with humans for generations. Dogs
can be classified in a number of different
ways. For example, they can be classified by
breed. Examples of different breeds include
beagles, basset hounds, poodles and countless
others as defined by the American Kennel Club
(AKC). They can also be classified by their
role in the lives of their masters and the work
they do. For example, a dog might be a family
pet, a working dog, a show dog, or a hunting dog.
In many cases, dogs are defined both by their
breed and their role. For example, a dog could
be a beagle that is a family pet.
Writing Activity
(Group)
Task: You are a sales manager. A
customer sent you an e-mail asking about
the different types of products you sell.
You need to respond to the e-mail
indicating the classification of your
products. Your message must contain the
product's category and specific features.
S I M I L A R
M A U R D I N R L
L I E S C L A O P
D I F F E R E N C E
F U S R T L E K
E I B NC O
C H O I C E
A H U W E S D O
C Y R C T I P
N
E L E M E N T
M A U L I G T O E
P S E Y N C E B R
COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
V. Comparison and Contrast
- organizes ideas based on how events,
places, people, things, and concepts are
similar to or different from one another
a.separately -involves describing
one item first followed by the second
item
b.side-by-side -involves discussing
both items based on each point
Signal Words for Comparing
also equally in the same similarly
way
as in a similar like to compare
fashion

both in likewise
comparison
Signal Words for Contrasting
although despite instead otherwise

and yet even so however still

as opposed even nevertheless the fact


to though remains
but in contrast nonetheless unlike
conversely in spite of on the whereas
contrary
counter to in the on the other yet
meantime hand
Writing Activity
(Group)
You are a film critic. You
are to
write a comparative
review of two films of the
same genre. Use the
comparison and contrast
pattern of text
development in your
review.
E X P L A I N
A X Y L N A P O R
C N I E U D S F L
C O N S E Q U E N C E
O R U N E F C O
T S E SM N
C R I T I C A L
T A R B G I O L U
Q C E K C H N S I
C N E C T I O N
O N
N A S O R C P I
R E A S O N
A S N U T O L F
F E D R I C BS
F I S H B O N E
O I T Q Y H A R S
B L N A F E U G O
CAUSE AND EFFECT
reaso
n
VI. Cause and Effect
- explains why something happens
or what results a particular event
produces
a.Paragraph empasizing cause

b.Paragraph emphasizing effect


Signal Words for Cause
as for in view of owing to
(the fact) (the fact)
because for the inasmuch seeing that
(of the fact) reason that as

being that in that one reason since

due to
(the fact that)
Signal Words for Effect
accordingly consequently in so that
consequence

as a for this so therefore


consequence reason

as a result hence so much (so) thus


(of this) that
because (of
this)
Example
-
Writing Activity
(Group)
Typhoon Yolanda took the lives of
over 6,300 Filipinos and displaced
thousands of others. Write a text
that explains why there were so
many casualties even when they
were warned of a storm surge
beforehand by the officials. Use the
cause and effect pattern of
development in writing.
C O N C E R N
O P T E M Y N U N
H C A G C L I R S
C A U S E
T U B N D A I Q
E X L C O M S P
N T I F I C
S C I E
A T C I U N A M I Y
I B F O
PROBLEM-SOLUTION
VII. Problem-Solution

- focuses on either a problem


or solution in a particular area
or situation
Signal Words for Problem-Solution
but the one solution
problem is
first, second the one way is
solution
nonetheless one reason
for the
Example
-
Writing Activity
(Group
You are a marketing manager. You are to
)
send business proposals to your clients about
a new product/service your company is
offering. Write the main text of the proposal
using the problem-solution pattern of
development. Your writing must be concise,
organized, and clear. Remember to use
language appropriate to your audience and
purpose. Use a professional tone and
positive words.
C O N V I N C E
N A S O P N U Y V
D C E V E W I R C
C L A I M
L E R I M N Q
AE K M D C U T R
A R G U M E N T
U Q E A G O R L N
T D R I S A P M E
E V I D E N C E
E T A M I S O D I
N X E N C Y V T E
F A C T
C I S E T
U FJ B D
P E R S U A S I O N
fact
VIII. Persuasion

- convinces readers to agree to


an argument or claim about a
particular topic.
Signal Words for Emphasizing a
Point
again in that to truly
case emphasize

for this indeed to repeat with this


reason in mind
in fact
Signal Words for Concluding and
Summarizing
accordingly consequently
in brief inevitably in a
nutshell
all in all due to in on the therefore
conclusion whole

as a result finally in short since thus

as I have in any in in to sum


said event summary essence up
Signal Words for Conceding a Point
admittedly it is true obviously true
that

assuredly needless of course undoubtedly


to say
certainly no doubt to be sure unquestionably
granted
Example
-
Writing Activity
(Group)
You are an editor of a newpaper. You would
like to react strongly to a new government
policy in the editorial section of the
newspaper. Your editorial must contain a
well-supported argumentative thesis, and
counter-arguments for opposing viewpoints.
It must also encourage a certain course of
action. The criteria in assessing your
editorial are its appeal to the readers,
accuracy of information, and adherence to
the style and format.
references

https://bconline.broward.edu/sh
ared/CollegeReadiness/Readi
ng/U05_PatOrg/U05_PatOrg_
print.html

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