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EVOLUTION OF EDUCATIONAL

TECHNOLOGY
PRESENT BY:
MACFI PROF-ED GROUP 3
THE 1950’S LED TWO MAJOR, STILL POPULAR
DESIGNS:
• Programmed Instruction (by Skinner) : focusing
on the formulation of behavioral objectives,
breaking instructional content into small units,
and rewarding correct responses early and often
CONT.

 Bloom advocated a mastery approach to


learning based on his taxonomy of intellectual
behaviors.
 He endorsed instructional technique that
varied both instruction and time according to
learners requirements.
 Models based on these designs were usually
referred to as Computer-based Training (CBT),
CONT.
 Computer aided instruction or computer-
assisted instruction (CAI) in the 1970’s through
the 1990’s. in a more simplified form, they
correspond to today’s “E=CONTENTS” that
often form the core of “E-LEARNING” set ups,
 Also referred as web-based training (WBT)
or “E-INSTRUCTION.
 The course designer divides learning contents
into smaller chicks of text augmented with
graphics and multimedia presentation/
 Frequent multiple-choice questions with
immediate feedback are added for self-
assessment and guidance.
THE 1980’S AND 1990’S

• Computer-based learning (CBL) frequently


based on constructivist and cognitivist learning
theories, these environments focus on teaching
both abstract and domain specific problem
solving.
• Preferred technologies include Micro-worlds,
simulations, and hypertext.
CONT.

 In the mid-1980’s, digitized communication


and networking in education started and
became popular by the mid-90’s, in particular
through the WORLD-WIDE WEB (WWW), e-mail
and forms,
CONT.
 There is a difference between two major forms
of online learning. The EARLIER type, based on
either Computer Based Training (CBT) or
Computer Based learning (CBL),
 Focused on the interaction between the student
or and computer drills, plus tutorials on the one
hand or micro-worlds and simulations on the
other. Both can be delivered today over the
WWW.
CONT.
 Today, the prevailing paradigm in the regular school
system is computer-mediated communication (CMC),
where the primary form of interaction is between
students and instructors, mediated by the computer.
 CBT/CBL usually means individualized learning (Self-
Study), while CMC involves teacher/tutor facilitation and
requires scenarization of flexible learning activities
 Modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining
learning communities and associated knowledge
management task.
 Also provides tools for student and curriculum
management.
CONT.

 Courses addressed to smaller groups


frequently use blended or hybrid designs that
mix presence courses ( usually in the beginning
and at the end of a module).
 With distance activities and use various
pedagogical styles ( e.g. drill and practice,
exercises, projects, etc.)
THE 2000’S

 the emergence of multiple mobile and global


technologies gave a new impulse to situated
learning theories favoring learning-in-context
scenarios. Some literature uses the concept of
integrated learning to describe blended
learning scenarios that integrate both school
and authentic (e.g. workplace) settings,
PERSPECTIVE THAT DEFINE EDUCATIONAL
TECHNOLOGY
1. Educational technology as media and audiovisual
communications

2. Educational technology as instructional system and


instructional designs

3. Educational technology as vocational training

4. Educational technology as computer system (a.k.a.


Educational computing and instructional computing).
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AS MEDIA AND
AUDIOVISUAL COMMUNICATIONS
 This perspective grew out of the audiovisual
movement in the 1930’s when higher education
instructor proposed that media such as slides and
films delivered information in more concrete, and
therefore more effective, ways that lectures and
books did,
 this movement produced audiovisual
communications or the “branch of educational
theory and practice concerned primarily with the
design and use of messages that control the
learning process (saettler, 1990).
CONT.

 The views of educational technology as media


to deliver information continues to dominate
areas of education and the communication
industry.
 As late as 1986, the national task force on
educational technology equated educational
technology with media, treating computers
simply as another medium (saettler, 1990).
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AS INSTRUCTIONAL
SYSYEM AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNS
 Originated form post-world war ii military and
industrial trainers who were faced with the
problem of preparing a large number of
personnel quickly.
 Based on efficiency studies and learning
theories from educational psychology they
advocate using more planned systematic
approaches to developing uniform, effective
materials and training procedures.
CONT.
 Their view was based on the belief that both human
(teacher) and nonhuman (media) resources can be part
of an efficient system form addressing any instructional
need. Therefore, they equated “educational technology”
with “educational problem solution.

 As these training personnel began to work with both


university research and development projects and k-12
schools, they also influenced practices in both of theses
areas. Behaviorist theories initially dominated, and
cognitive theories later gained prominence.
CONT.

 In the 1990’s, popular learning theories


criticized systems approaches as being too
rigid to foster some kind of learning –
particularly higher –order ones. Thus, the
current view of educational technology as
instructional system is continually evolving.
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AS VOCATIONAL
TRAINING
 Also known as technology education, this
perspective originated from industry trainers and
vocational educators in the 1980’s.

THEY BELIEVE
 (1) that an important function of school learning is
to prepare students for the world of work in which
they will use technology.
 (2) the vocational training can be a practical
means of teaching all content areas, such as
math, science and language.
CONT.

 This view brought about a major paradigm shift


in vocational training in k-12 schools away from
industrial arts curricula centered on
woodworking/metals and graphics/printing
shops toward technology education courses
taught in labs equipped with high- technology
stations, such as desktop publishing,
computer-assisted designs (CAD), and robotic
system.
EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AS COMPUTER SYSTEM (A.K.A.
EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING AND INSTRUCTIONAL COMPUTING).

 This view began in the 1950’s with the advent of


computers, and gained momentum when they began to
used instructionally in the 1960s.
 As computers began to transform business and industry
practices, both trainers and teachers began to see that
computer also had the potentials to aid instruction
 From the time computers came into classrooms in the
1960’s until about 1990, this perspective was known as
educational computing and encompassed both
instructional and administrative support applications.
CONT.
 At first, programmers and systems analysts
created all applications. But by the 1970’s,
many of the same educators involved with
medical, AV communications, and instructional
system were also researching and developing
computer applications.
 By the 1990’s, educators began to see
computers as part pf a combination of
technology resources, including media,
instructional system, and computer-based
support systems/
 At the point, educational computing became
known as educational technology.
BENEFITS DERIVED FROM EDUCATIONAL
TECHNOLOGY

 Educational technology is intended to improve


education for the 21st century learner. Students
today are considered “digital natives” who were
born and raised in a digital environment and
inherently think differently because of this
exposure to technology.
HERE ARE SOME OF THE CLAIMED BENEFITS OF
INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY INTO THE CLASSROOM

 1. EASY –TO – ACCESS COURSE MATERIAL


 2. STUDENT MOTIVATION

 3. MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR EXTENDED


LEARNING
 4. WIDE PARTICIPATION

 5. IMPROVED STUDENT WRITING

 6. DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
EASY –TO – ACCESS COURSE
MATERIAL

 Instructors can post their course material or


important information on a course website,
which means student can study at a time and
location they prefer and can obtain the study
material very quickly.
STUDENT MOTIVATION
 According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness
of computers used for instruction. “students usually learn
more in less time when receiving computer-based
instruction and they like classes more and develop more
positive attitudes toward computer in computer-based
classes”

 Teacher must be aware of their students motivators in


order to successfully implement technology into the
classroom. Students are more motivate to learn when
they are interested in the subject matter, which can be
enhanced by using technologies in the classroom and
targeting the needs for screens and digital material that
they have been stimulated by outside of the classrooms
MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR EXTENDED
LEARNING
 According to study complete in 2010, 70.3% of
American family households have access to the internet.
According to the Canadian ratio television and
telecommunication commission, 79% of homes have
access to internet. This allows student to access course
material at home and engage with the numerous online
resources available to them.

 Student can use their computers and internet to


conduct research , participate in social media, e-mail,
and play educational games and stream videos.
WIDE PARTICIPATION

 Learning material can be used for long-


distance learning and area accessible to a
wider audience.
IMPROVED STUDENT WRITING

 It is convenient for students to edit their written


work on word processor, which can, it turn,
improve the quality of their writing

 According to some studies, the students are


better at critiquing and editing written work that
is exchanged over a computer networks with
students they know.
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
 Educational technology provides the means to focus on
active student’s participation and to present
differentiated questioning strategies.
 It broadens individualized instruction and promotes the
development of personalized learning plans in some
computer programs available to teachers.
 Students are encourage to use multimedia components
and to incorporate the knowledge they gained in
creative ways. This allows some student to individually
progress from using low-ordered skills gained from drill
and practice activities. To higher level thinking through
applying concepts creatively and creating stimulations.
CONT.

 The ability to make educational technology


individualized may aid in targeting and
accommodating different learning styles and
levels.
 Overall, the use of internet in education has
hand a positive impact on students,
education, as well as the educational system
as a whole. Effective technologies use many
evidence-based strategies( e.g. adaptive
content, frequent testing, immediate
feedback, etc.) as do affective teachers. It is
important for teachers to embrace
technology in order to gain these benefits so
they can address the needs of their digital
natives.
 The internet itself has unlocked a world of
opportunity for students. Information and
ideas that were previously out of reach are a
now click away. Student of all ages can
connect, share, and learn on a global scales

 Using technology in the classroom can allow


teacher to effectively organized and present
lessons. Multimedia presentation can make
the material more meaningful and engaging.
THANK YOU
BY: GROUP 3