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NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

DESIGN

NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

A quantitative research design that is capable of giving

qualitative and quantitative data, BUT MORE ON

QUALITATIVE DATA.

SHUNS controlling variables

Involves variables the way they naturally exist on earth.

TYPES OF NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

DESIGN

A. Survey Studies/Research- most used non-

experiment/research in the field of Sociology, Psychology, and

Humanities

- A method of research that aims at knowing what a big

number of people think and feel about some sociological

issues.

DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES:

A. Interview

B. Questionnaires

C. Online survey

D. Telephone interview

B. DESCRIPTIVE- utilized for the purpose of accurately

portraying a population that has been chosen because of some

specific characteristics.

-used to determine the extent or direction of attitudes and

behaviors.

- The purpose is to provide a picture of a situation as it

naturally happens.

C. CORRELATIONAL- investigates the direction and

magnitude of relationships among variables in a particular

population.

- Designed to study the changes in one characteristic or

phenomenon which correspond to changes in another or with

one another.

D. EVALUATIVE- involves making a judgment of worth

or value

- Allows the researcher to delineate, obtain, and

provide information that is useful for judging

decision alternatives when conducting a program or

service. It can be formative (process) or summative

(outcome).

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

EXPERIMENT

controlled environment.

SELECTION OF SUBJECTS/PARTICIPANTS

PRETESTING/POSTTESTING

COMBINATION/MIXTURE OF THE

COMPONENTS OF EXPERIMENT:

A. TREATMENT >EVALUATION

B. PRE-TEST>TREATMENT>POST TEST

MONTHS>POST TEST>1 YEAR> POST TEST

WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS?

OTHER DESIGNS UNDER QUASI-

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

a. MATCHED COMPARISON GROUP DESIGN

-instead of selecting participants/subjects for control group,

one gets a set of participants/subjects that show close

similarities with the experimental or treatment group based

on one or more important variables.

-involves multiple observations of the subjects before and

after the treatment or condition applied to the

experimental group

Example: Measurement of a learner’s performance

in a college on weekly basis and then introducing a

new teaching technique.Then, again measuring on

weekly basis.

measure the effects of a treatment over a long

period of time.

c. COUNTER-BALANCED QUASI-

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

-often employed when several interventions are being

tested concurrently

Methodology:

1. After random selection from the population, the

study subjects are divided up into independent

groups.

2. Each group receives each intervention, but in a

different order from other respective groups.

3. An observation of the outcome is taken after

each series of interventions.

PARTICIPANTS OF THE

STUDY

POPULATION- composed of persons or objects

that possess some common characteristics that are

of interest to the researcher.

TWO GROUPS OF POPULATION:

A. TARGET POPULATION

B. ACCESSIBLE POPULATION

or objects to which the findings of the study generally apply.

Accessible population- the specific study population

Example:

A study about the common difficulties encountered by

senior high school students in the technical-vocational track

in their on the job-training in Region VII.

Target population:

All SHS students enrolled in the technical-vocational track

in Region VII

Accessible population:

SHS students who are enrolled within the school or district

and even those who are in the division

BASIC CONCEPTS IN DETERMINING THE

PARTICIPANTS OF THE STUDY

PARAMETER- numeric characteristic of a population

SAMPLE- a subset of the entire population or a group of

individuals that represents the population and serves as the

respondents of the study

STATISTIC- a numeric characteristic of a sample

ELEMENT- a single member of the sample

In the previous example, if there is a total of 13, 000

students enrolled, 13,000 is called the parameter. Out of the

13, 000, only 3000 students are enrolled in the Division of Leyte.

After computing statistically, the sample derived is 500 SHS.

This number, 500, is called a statistic.

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN DETERMINING

THE SAMPLE SIZE

1. Homogeneity of the population- the higher the

degree of variation within the population, the smaller

the sample size can be utilized.

2. Degree of precision desired by the researcher- a

larger sample size will result in greater precision or

accuracy of results.

3. Types of sampling procedures- Probability

sampling utilizes smaller sample sizes than non-

probability sampling

4. The use of formula

a. SLOVIN’S FORMULA. It is used to compute the

sample size (Sevilla, 2003). This formula is used when

you have limited information about the characteristics

of the population and are using a non-probability

sampling procedure. (Ellen, 2016)

𝑁

n=

1+𝑁𝑒 2

Where:

Margin of error- degree of error in

n= sample size results received from random sampling

N= population size surveys.

LOWER MARGIN OF ERROR INDICATES

e= desired margin of error HIGHER CONFIDENCE LEVELS IN THE

PRODUCED RESULTS

Example: The parameter of the population is 8,000 at 2%

margin of error or 98% accuracy.

𝑁 8000

n= = 4.2

1+𝑁𝑒 2

8000

= = 1, 905

1+8000(0.02)2

8000

= 1+8000(.0004)

8000

=

1+3.2

Assignment: Study on the nature of Calmorin’s formula in

research. Each group will come up with a sample research

situation/scenario and use Calmorin’s formula in computing

the sample size to be presented/demonstrated next

meeting.

Other considerations;

a. Sample sizes as small as 30 are generally adequate to ensure

that the sampling distribution of the mean will approximate

the normal curve (Shott, 1990).

b. When the total population is equal to or less than 100, this

same number may serve as the sample size. This is called

universal sampling.

c. The following are the acceptable sizes for different types of

research (Gay, 1976)

Descriptive research- 10%-20% may be required

Correlational research- 30 subjects or respondents

Comparative research- 15 subjects/group

Experimental design- 15-30 subjects per group

KINDS OF SAMPLING

1. PROBABILITY SAMPLING- a type of sampling in

which all members of the population are given a chance

of being selected. This is also called scientific sampling.

a. Simple Random sampling- a method of choosing

samples in which all the members of the population are

given an equal chance to be selected as respondents.

- an unbiased way of selection as samples are drawn by

chance.

Various ways: fishbowl technique, table of random

numbers, etc.

b. Stratified Random Sampling- the population is

divided into different strata then the sampling follows.

Criteria (dividing the population into strata):

1. Age

2. Gender

3. Educational qualifications

Example: The researchers will study the common causes and

effects of smoking among senior highschool students. Equal

representations of respondents are selected from various

samples from public and private schools (first stratum). Then

in the selected public and private schools, samples are chosen

from each grade level (second stratum). Finally, samples are

chosen by gender (third stratum).The sampling process is

done in stages starting from the first stratum up to the last

stratum.

c. Cluster Sampling- this is used in large-scale studies in

which the population is geographically spread out.

Example: A researcher wants to interview 100 senior high school

honor students to have enough representatives of the different

public schools within the division. If there are 10 public schools in

the division, each cluster or school must have 10 samples to

complete the total statistics of 100.

element of the population (Examples: every fifth, eighth,

ninth, or eleventh element). After the size of the sample has

been determined, the selection of the sample follows.

2. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING

-the process of selecting respondents in which the entire

population do not have an equal chance of being selected as

samples.

-also termed as non-scientific sampling

sampling)

Example: After determining the sample size of the population

of elementary pupils, the elementary pupils who are the moment

present during the research visit will be chosen as respondents.

b. Purposive sampling (Judgmental sampling) involves

the handpicking of subjects.

Example: In a study involving diabetic patients, the researcher

uses a list of diabetic patients and chooses the necessary

number of respondents.

HOW TO FORMULATE THE DESCRIPTION OF

RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY:

A. Total Population and its parameters

B. The sample and its statistics

C. The sampling method (with reference to

support it)

D. Explanation and discussion of the sampling

method

E. Explanation of how the sampling is done

F. Enumeration of the qualifying criteria

G. Profile of the respondents

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology

Research Design

Respondents of the Study

Source of Data

Sampling Design

Data Gathering Procedure

Statistical tool

Notes

How does the researcher

answer the questions stated in

Chapter 1?

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN

RELIABILITY

STATISTICAL TREATMENT

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

are not part of the study but are believed to influence the outcomes

-these variables are part of the study limitations

- Labeled THREATS to INTERNAL or EXTERNAL

VALIDITY

A.Internal Validity- the degree to which the changes in the

dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable

B. .

dependent variable can be attributed to the extraneous variables

THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY

1. Selection Bias: A researcher wants to experiment on the

best method in teaching home science and technology.The

researcher assigns the students from the higher section to

be in the experimental group and the students in the lower

section to be in the control group. Obviously, the students in

the higher section will perform better.

The subjects/respondents of the study are not

randomly selected.The requirements of objectivity

are not met since there is subjectivity in the

selection of subjects.

2. Maturation: A researcher implemented an experiment with

Grade 10 students as his subjects.The researcher, however,

became busy and was unable to follow up the results of the

experiment.When he was able to resume his study two years

later, the subjects had already matured and were in Grade 12.

beyond a longer period of time during which most

of the subjects undergo physical emotional and/or

psychological changes.

3. History: While a research on the effectiveness of a method

in stopping smoking was on going, news broke out about

students who were diagnosed with lung cancer because of

smoking.The subjects who heard the news were frightened and

decided to stop smoking not because of the intervention but

because of the news.

result of an experiment.

4. Instrumentation change: A researcher uses an open-

ended questionnaire during the initial period of his data

gathering, then replaces the research instrument with a closed-

ended survey form later.

be changed or replaced during the conduct of the

study. Such change will have an effect on the data

gathered and the validity and reliability of the data

will be put into question.

5.Testing: The researcher wants to see if students score higher

on an achievement test if they are taught the subject using a

new textbook than did students who have used the regular

textbook in the past.The researcher pretests the students before

the new textbook is introduced and then posttests them at the

end of a six-week period.The students may be “alerted” to what

is being studied by the questions in the pretest, however, and

accordingly make a greater effort to learn the material.This

increased effort on the part of the students (rather than the new

textbook) could account for the improvement. It may also be that

“practice” on the pretest by itself is responsible for the

improvement.

Testing bias is the influence of the pretest or

knowledge of baseline data on the posttest scores.

6. Mortality:This happens when one or more

subjects die, drop out, or transfer as in the case of a

student who has not completed his/her

participation in the experiment.

EXAMPLES?

7. Location: A researcher designs a study to compare the

effects of team versus individual teaching of U.S. history on

student attitudes toward history.The classrooms in which

students are taught by a single teacher have fewer books and

materials than the ones in which students are taught by a team

of three teachers.

or in which an intervention is carried out, may

create alternative explanations for results.

THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY

1. EXPERIMENTER EFFECT: A known personality like Ms.

Karen Davila, conducted an interview and caused the subjects to

be starstruck and give answers which they believe will please the

interviewer.

researcher affect the behavior of the subjects or

respondents. Answers in this kind of threat tend to

be superficial or may not truly reveal the ideas,

opinions, and thoughts of the subjects.

2. HAWTHORNE EFFECT: A research study done in

Hawthorne Works in Illinois looked into the effects of improved

lighting and the introduction of break times and shorter work

hours on worker performance.The original researchers

concluded that these changes the workplace resulted in better

worker performance. Later interpretations by Landsberger

suggested that the novelty of being research subjects and the

increased attention caused the increased productivity of the

workers.

This occurs when the respondents or subjects

respond artificially to the treatment because they

know they are being observed as part of a research

study.

1. A researcher wishes to compare two different kinds of

textbooks in two high school chemistry classes over a

semester. She finds that 20 percent of one group and 10

percent of the other group are absent during the

administration of unit tests.

2. In a study investigating the possible relationship between

marital status and perceived social changes during the last

five years, men and women interviewers get different

reactions from female respondents to the same questions.

3. Two groups of third graders are compared with regard to

running ability, subsequent to different trainings schedules. One

group is tested during physical education class in the school

gymnasium while the other is tested after school on the

football field.

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