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TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
DESIGN
NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN
 A quantitative research design that is capable of giving
qualitative and quantitative data, BUT MORE ON
QUALITATIVE DATA.
 SHUNS controlling variables
 Involves variables the way they naturally exist on earth.
TYPES OF NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
DESIGN
A. Survey Studies/Research- most used non-
experiment/research in the field of Sociology, Psychology, and
Humanities
- A method of research that aims at knowing what a big
number of people think and feel about some sociological
issues.
DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES:
A. Interview
B. Questionnaires
C. Online survey
D. Telephone interview
B. DESCRIPTIVE- utilized for the purpose of accurately
portraying a population that has been chosen because of some
specific characteristics.
-used to determine the extent or direction of attitudes and
behaviors.
- The purpose is to provide a picture of a situation as it
naturally happens.
C. CORRELATIONAL- investigates the direction and
magnitude of relationships among variables in a particular
population.
- Designed to study the changes in one characteristic or
phenomenon which correspond to changes in another or with
one another.
D. EVALUATIVE- involves making a judgment of worth
or value
- Allows the researcher to delineate, obtain, and
provide information that is useful for judging
decision alternatives when conducting a program or
service. It can be formative (process) or summative
(outcome).
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN

EXPERIMENT

A test or examination of a thing under a manipulated or


controlled environment.

SELECTION OF SUBJECTS/PARTICIPANTS

PRETESTING/POSTTESTING
COMBINATION/MIXTURE OF THE
COMPONENTS OF EXPERIMENT:

A. TREATMENT >EVALUATION

B. PRE-TEST>TREATMENT>POST TEST

C. PRE-TEST>MULTIPLE TREATMENTS>POST TEST

D. PRE-TEST>TREATMENT>IMMEDIATE POST TEST>6


MONTHS>POST TEST>1 YEAR> POST TEST
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS?
OTHER DESIGNS UNDER QUASI-
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
a. MATCHED COMPARISON GROUP DESIGN
-instead of selecting participants/subjects for control group,
one gets a set of participants/subjects that show close
similarities with the experimental or treatment group based
on one or more important variables.

b. TIME-SERIES QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN


-involves multiple observations of the subjects before and
after the treatment or condition applied to the
experimental group
Example: Measurement of a learner’s performance
in a college on weekly basis and then introducing a
new teaching technique.Then, again measuring on
weekly basis.

Note:TSD is useful when the researcher intends to


measure the effects of a treatment over a long
period of time.
c. COUNTER-BALANCED QUASI-
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
-often employed when several interventions are being
tested concurrently
Methodology:
1. After random selection from the population, the
study subjects are divided up into independent
groups.
2. Each group receives each intervention, but in a
different order from other respective groups.
3. An observation of the outcome is taken after
each series of interventions.
PARTICIPANTS OF THE
STUDY
POPULATION- composed of persons or objects
that possess some common characteristics that are
of interest to the researcher.
TWO GROUPS OF POPULATION:
A. TARGET POPULATION
B. ACCESSIBLE POPULATION

Target population- consists of the entire group of people


or objects to which the findings of the study generally apply.
Accessible population- the specific study population
Example:
A study about the common difficulties encountered by
senior high school students in the technical-vocational track
in their on the job-training in Region VII.

Target population:
All SHS students enrolled in the technical-vocational track
in Region VII
Accessible population:
SHS students who are enrolled within the school or district
and even those who are in the division
BASIC CONCEPTS IN DETERMINING THE
PARTICIPANTS OF THE STUDY
PARAMETER- numeric characteristic of a population
SAMPLE- a subset of the entire population or a group of
individuals that represents the population and serves as the
respondents of the study
STATISTIC- a numeric characteristic of a sample
ELEMENT- a single member of the sample
In the previous example, if there is a total of 13, 000
students enrolled, 13,000 is called the parameter. Out of the
13, 000, only 3000 students are enrolled in the Division of Leyte.
After computing statistically, the sample derived is 500 SHS.
This number, 500, is called a statistic.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN DETERMINING
THE SAMPLE SIZE
1. Homogeneity of the population- the higher the
degree of variation within the population, the smaller
the sample size can be utilized.
2. Degree of precision desired by the researcher- a
larger sample size will result in greater precision or
accuracy of results.
3. Types of sampling procedures- Probability
sampling utilizes smaller sample sizes than non-
probability sampling
4. The use of formula
a. SLOVIN’S FORMULA. It is used to compute the
sample size (Sevilla, 2003). This formula is used when
you have limited information about the characteristics
of the population and are using a non-probability
sampling procedure. (Ellen, 2016)

𝑁
n=
1+𝑁𝑒 2
Where:
Margin of error- degree of error in
n= sample size results received from random sampling
N= population size surveys.
LOWER MARGIN OF ERROR INDICATES
e= desired margin of error HIGHER CONFIDENCE LEVELS IN THE
PRODUCED RESULTS
Example: The parameter of the population is 8,000 at 2%
margin of error or 98% accuracy.

𝑁 8000
n= = 4.2
1+𝑁𝑒 2
8000
= = 1, 905
1+8000(0.02)2
8000
= 1+8000(.0004)

8000
=
1+3.2
Assignment: Study on the nature of Calmorin’s formula in
research. Each group will come up with a sample research
situation/scenario and use Calmorin’s formula in computing
the sample size to be presented/demonstrated next
meeting.
Other considerations;
a. Sample sizes as small as 30 are generally adequate to ensure
that the sampling distribution of the mean will approximate
the normal curve (Shott, 1990).
b. When the total population is equal to or less than 100, this
same number may serve as the sample size. This is called
universal sampling.
c. The following are the acceptable sizes for different types of
research (Gay, 1976)
Descriptive research- 10%-20% may be required
Correlational research- 30 subjects or respondents
Comparative research- 15 subjects/group
Experimental design- 15-30 subjects per group
KINDS OF SAMPLING
1. PROBABILITY SAMPLING- a type of sampling in
which all members of the population are given a chance
of being selected. This is also called scientific sampling.
a. Simple Random sampling- a method of choosing
samples in which all the members of the population are
given an equal chance to be selected as respondents.
- an unbiased way of selection as samples are drawn by
chance.
Various ways: fishbowl technique, table of random
numbers, etc.
b. Stratified Random Sampling- the population is
divided into different strata then the sampling follows.
Criteria (dividing the population into strata):
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Educational qualifications
Example: The researchers will study the common causes and
effects of smoking among senior highschool students. Equal
representations of respondents are selected from various
samples from public and private schools (first stratum). Then
in the selected public and private schools, samples are chosen
from each grade level (second stratum). Finally, samples are
chosen by gender (third stratum).The sampling process is
done in stages starting from the first stratum up to the last
stratum.
c. Cluster Sampling- this is used in large-scale studies in
which the population is geographically spread out.
Example: A researcher wants to interview 100 senior high school
honor students to have enough representatives of the different
public schools within the division. If there are 10 public schools in
the division, each cluster or school must have 10 samples to
complete the total statistics of 100.

d. Systematic Sampling- a method of selecting every nth


element of the population (Examples: every fifth, eighth,
ninth, or eleventh element). After the size of the sample has
been determined, the selection of the sample follows.
2. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING
-the process of selecting respondents in which the entire
population do not have an equal chance of being selected as
samples.
-also termed as non-scientific sampling

a. Convenience Sampling- (accidental/incidental


sampling)
Example: After determining the sample size of the population
of elementary pupils, the elementary pupils who are the moment
present during the research visit will be chosen as respondents.
b. Purposive sampling (Judgmental sampling) involves
the handpicking of subjects.
Example: In a study involving diabetic patients, the researcher
uses a list of diabetic patients and chooses the necessary
number of respondents.
HOW TO FORMULATE THE DESCRIPTION OF
RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY:
A. Total Population and its parameters
B. The sample and its statistics
C. The sampling method (with reference to
support it)
D. Explanation and discussion of the sampling
method
E. Explanation of how the sampling is done
F. Enumeration of the qualifying criteria
G. Profile of the respondents
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
 Research Design
 Respondents of the Study
 Source of Data
 Sampling Design
 Data Gathering Procedure
 Statistical tool
 Notes
How does the researcher
answer the questions stated in
Chapter 1?
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN

RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY

ESTABLISHING AND VALIDATING


RELIABILITY

STATISTICAL TREATMENT
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

EXTRANEOUS/INTERVENING VARIABLES- variables that


are not part of the study but are believed to influence the outcomes
-these variables are part of the study limitations
- Labeled THREATS to INTERNAL or EXTERNAL
VALIDITY
A.Internal Validity- the degree to which the changes in the
dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable

External Validity- the degree to which the changes in the


B. .
dependent variable can be attributed to the extraneous variables
THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY
1. Selection Bias: A researcher wants to experiment on the
best method in teaching home science and technology.The
researcher assigns the students from the higher section to
be in the experimental group and the students in the lower
section to be in the control group. Obviously, the students in
the higher section will perform better.
The subjects/respondents of the study are not
randomly selected.The requirements of objectivity
are not met since there is subjectivity in the
selection of subjects.
2. Maturation: A researcher implemented an experiment with
Grade 10 students as his subjects.The researcher, however,
became busy and was unable to follow up the results of the
experiment.When he was able to resume his study two years
later, the subjects had already matured and were in Grade 12.

This happens when the experiment is conducted


beyond a longer period of time during which most
of the subjects undergo physical emotional and/or
psychological changes.
3. History: While a research on the effectiveness of a method
in stopping smoking was on going, news broke out about
students who were diagnosed with lung cancer because of
smoking.The subjects who heard the news were frightened and
decided to stop smoking not because of the intervention but
because of the news.

This happens when an unusual event affects the


result of an experiment.
4. Instrumentation change: A researcher uses an open-
ended questionnaire during the initial period of his data
gathering, then replaces the research instrument with a closed-
ended survey form later.

The instrument used in gathering the data must not


be changed or replaced during the conduct of the
study. Such change will have an effect on the data
gathered and the validity and reliability of the data
will be put into question.
5.Testing: The researcher wants to see if students score higher
on an achievement test if they are taught the subject using a
new textbook than did students who have used the regular
textbook in the past.The researcher pretests the students before
the new textbook is introduced and then posttests them at the
end of a six-week period.The students may be “alerted” to what
is being studied by the questions in the pretest, however, and
accordingly make a greater effort to learn the material.This
increased effort on the part of the students (rather than the new
textbook) could account for the improvement. It may also be that
“practice” on the pretest by itself is responsible for the
improvement.
Testing bias is the influence of the pretest or
knowledge of baseline data on the posttest scores.
6. Mortality:This happens when one or more
subjects die, drop out, or transfer as in the case of a
student who has not completed his/her
participation in the experiment.

EXAMPLES?
7. Location: A researcher designs a study to compare the
effects of team versus individual teaching of U.S. history on
student attitudes toward history.The classrooms in which
students are taught by a single teacher have fewer books and
materials than the ones in which students are taught by a team
of three teachers.

The particular locations in which data are collected,


or in which an intervention is carried out, may
create alternative explanations for results.
THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY
1. EXPERIMENTER EFFECT: A known personality like Ms.
Karen Davila, conducted an interview and caused the subjects to
be starstruck and give answers which they believe will please the
interviewer.

The threat appears when the characteristics of the


researcher affect the behavior of the subjects or
respondents. Answers in this kind of threat tend to
be superficial or may not truly reveal the ideas,
opinions, and thoughts of the subjects.
2. HAWTHORNE EFFECT: A research study done in
Hawthorne Works in Illinois looked into the effects of improved
lighting and the introduction of break times and shorter work
hours on worker performance.The original researchers
concluded that these changes the workplace resulted in better
worker performance. Later interpretations by Landsberger
suggested that the novelty of being research subjects and the
increased attention caused the increased productivity of the
workers.
This occurs when the respondents or subjects
respond artificially to the treatment because they
know they are being observed as part of a research
study.
1. A researcher wishes to compare two different kinds of
textbooks in two high school chemistry classes over a
semester. She finds that 20 percent of one group and 10
percent of the other group are absent during the
administration of unit tests.
2. In a study investigating the possible relationship between
marital status and perceived social changes during the last
five years, men and women interviewers get different
reactions from female respondents to the same questions.
 3. Two groups of third graders are compared with regard to
running ability, subsequent to different trainings schedules. One
group is tested during physical education class in the school
gymnasium while the other is tested after school on the
football field.