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AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

TOPIC: BRAKE SERVOS

SACHIN VP- 47
ZIYAD UMAR K- 61
CONTENTS
 BRAKE SERVO
 OPERATING PRINCIPLE
 VACUUM SERVO
 SUSPENDED VACUUM SERVO
 DIRECT ACTING SUSPENDED VACUUM SERVO SYSTEM
 HYDRAULIC SERVO ASSISTED BRAKE SYSTEMS
BRAKE SERVO
 The brake servo is a component used in braking system of the motor
vehicles to provide assistance to the driver by decreasing the braking
effort.
 The addition of the brake servo does not improve braking performance, it
simply helps with the amount of force that is needed to operate the brakes.
 The brake servo uses the vacuum from the engine to boost the pressure
that you exert on the brake pedal.
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
 If the force applied by the driver is not sufficient to stop the vehicle then
some form of assistance is needed.
 The boosting force applied to improve the driver’s effort is called as “servo
assistance”.
 In the past servo assistance was provided by rotation of the brake drum
(self-servo) to keep the pedal force low.
 Today due to introduction of powerful disc brakes, the servo assistance is
provided by either pneumatic (vacuum) or hydraulic means.
 Types
 Vacuum assistance – Medium cars.
 Hydraulic assistance – Heavy cars.
VACUUM SERVO
 The vacuum servo or vacuum assisted servo is the most popular system.
 In the spark-ignition engine, the induction manifold depression is used as a
source of servo energy in the most systems.
 But in case of diesel engine, the vacuum energy is not available at the
manifold. Hence, an engine-driven ‘vacuum pump’ provides the required
assistance.
 The operation of the servo should be progressive.ie, the servo assistance
should be proportional to the pedal effort for light pedal pressure.
 Vacuum servos used in common are called as “suspended vacuum
system”. It is because vacuum conditions prevail on both sides of the
servo piston during operation of the vehicle with the brakes off.
 When the brake is applied, outside air is blend in to the chamber on one
side of the piston to create a pressure difference. This arrangement allows
the servo to respond quickly in comparison to older atmospheric
suspended type system.
SUSPENDED VACUUM SERVO

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SUSPENDED VACUUM SERVO
The two main types of suspended vacuum servos are:
o Direct acting suspended vacuum servo system
In this system the brake pedal linkage and master cylinder assembly is
directly connected to the servo. It can be used either single or tandem master
cylinders.
o Indirect acting suspended vacuum servo system
It is also referred as remote type because it is located in the hydraulic line
between the single master cylinder and the wheel cylinders and is therefore
remote from the master cylinder.
Since it forms a hydraulic circuit between the master cylinder and wheel
cylinders, it is not practical to use this type when modern tandem master
cylinders are used.
DIRECT ACTING SUSPENDED VACUUM
SERVO SYSTEM
DIRECT ACTING SUSPENDED VACUUM
SERVO SYSTEM
 The direct acting suspended vacuum servo can be used with either single
or tandem master cylinders.
 It is named as direct acting suspended vacuum servo system as it is directly
connected to the pedal linkage and master cylinder assembly.
This servos are explained in two positions
1) Brakes fully applied 2) Brakes held on
Brakes fully applied
 When foot pedal is pushed down, the pedal push not moves towards the
diaphragm power piston.
 At this time, vacuum/air diaphragm closes the relay piston and inlet seat
separates from vacuum face because of inward push rod movement.
 Thus air or vacuum chamber is stopped from vacuum supply. Then
atmospheric air is free to pass through air filter located on pedal push rod
side.
 The variation in pressure in between low primary vacuum chamber and
high pressure vacuum chamber makes the power piston and power push
rod to move forward against master cylinder piston.
 So the fluid pressure is produced in both brake circuits to operate the front
and rear brakes.
Brakes held on
 When brake held, power piston moves forward because of higher air
pressure in vacuum chamber.
 It is held on until the reaction pad is compressed by the power piston’s
shoulder. By compressing the outer rubber of reaction pad, the runner
distorts.
 Then, power piston and valve body move forward but the relay piston and
push rod are in same position until the air valve seat closes against the
vacuum diaphragm face.
 More amount of atmospheric air are not allowed to enter the air chamber
so that, there is no further rise in servo power assistance.
 The action of reaction of reaction-pad gives a progressive servo assistance.
 The cycle of increasing or decreasing the degree of braking provides new
states of hold which are progressive and correspond to the manual effort.
HYDRAULIC SERVO ASSISTED BRAKE
SYSTEMS
 In this braking, a hydraulic servo is used which operates on a pressure range
of 5395 to 8842 kpa.
 This system is used to provide a greater source of energy which is necessary
to stop a heavy motor or light truck.
 They are of two: continuous flow system without accumulator and
continuous flow system with accumulator.
CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEM WITHOUT
ACCUMULATOR
 In this system a multi cylinder pump supplies the fluid to the servo valve
mounted behind conventional master cylinder.
 The fluid can easily pass between the master-cylinder piston and servo valve
to the pipe line connecting the reservoir.
 The brake pedal is depressed, it closes the conical servo valve and pump
builds up a pressure in the region and so that piston and valve are forced
apart.
 The servo valve is opened partially to maintain the pressure and provide
assistance.
 A pressure relief valve is opened, when the pedal force becomes high.
 It allows the fluid to escape to the reservoir.
 The brake pedal is released and it opens the servo valve and releases
brakes and restores uninterrupted flow of fluid from pump to reservoir.
CONTINOUS FLOW SYSTEM WITH
ACCUMULATOR
 In this system, an accumulator is attached. The accumulator is used to
overcome the problem in the system without accumulator.
 The accumulator has spring-loaded piston which is acted upon by the fluid.
 If the fluid pressure is higher, the spring will be compressed once.
 A cut-out valve is installed to maintain the accumulator pressure.
 A charging valve is operated by fluid pressure from the output or brake line
side of the master cylinder. It supplies fluid from accumulator to act on the
servo valve, when the pump fails to supply the required fluid.
 It is necessary to discharge and drain the accumulator before any part is
disconnected from this system.
THANK YOU