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The Elements of Drama

Arranged by:
Annisa Nur Fitria
Ghea Hafiiza Nazmi
Mardiatun Nisa
Maya Putri Amelia
Zahrah Fawziah
The Elements of Drama
The elements of drama, by which dramatic
works can be analyzed and evaluated, can be
categorized into three major areas:



Aristotle’s Six Elements of Drama
--Literary Elements--

Plot Theme Characters

Dialogue Music/Rhythm Spectacle

Plot Plot refers to the action; the basic
storyline of the play.

Initial Preliminar y Rising

incident event action

Denouement Climax

Six Stages in a Plot Structure

Theme refers to the meaning of the play.
Theme Theme is the main idea or lesson to be
learned from the play. In some cases, the
theme of a play is obvious; other times it is
quite subtle.

between two

Conflict between
man and a
Some General Themes power

Conflict between
the man and
The people (sometimes animals or ideas)
portrayed by the actors in the play. It is the
Characters characters who move the action or plot.
Characterization is the way an author
presents a character.

Protagonist Antagonist Static Dynamic

Flat Round

Stereotype Archetype

Types of Characters
This refers to the words written by the
Dialogue playwright and spoken by the characters in
the play. The dialogue helps move the
action of the play along.

Various Forms of
Dialogue An exchange between two or more characters


• A character that is typically alone on stage delivers a long

speech which is called a soliloquy. Emotions and innermost
thoughts of the character are revealed in a soliloquy.


• This is spoken by a character to another character or to the

audience but is not heard by the other characters on stage.
Asides reveal what a character is thinking or feeling.
While music is often featured in
Music/Rhythm drama, in this case Aristotle was
referring to the rhythm of the actors'
voices as they speak.


This refers to the visual elements of a

play: sets, costumes, special effects,
etc. Spectacle is everything that the
audience sees as they watch the play.
Elements of Drama in The Modern
--Literary Elements--

Characters Plot Theme

Dialogue Convention Genre

These are the techniques and
Convention methods used by the playwright and
director to create the desired stylistic

Genre refers to the type of play. Some

Genre examples of different genres include
comedy, tragedy, mystery and
historical play.

This is the group of people who watch the

Audience play. Many playwrights and actors
consider the audience to be the most
important element of drama, as all of the
effort put in to writing and producing a
play is for the enjoyment of the audience.
--Technical Elements--


Properties Lights

Sound Makeup
Scenery The theatrical equipment, such as
curtains, flats, backdrops, or platforms,
(set) used in a dramatic production to
communicate environment.

Costumes Clothing and accessories are worn by

actors to portray character and period.

Properties are any article, except costume

Properties or scenery, used as part of a dramatic
production; any moveable object that
appears on stage during a performance,
from a telephone to a train
Light elements means that every
Lights placement, intensity, and color of
lights have to be set as needed to help
communicate environment, mood, or

The effects an audience hears during

Sound performance to communicate
character, context, or environment.

Makeup includes costumes, wigs, and

Makeup body paint used to transform an actor into
a character.
--Performance Elements--

• The use of face, body, and voice to

Acting portray character

• The reason or reasons for a character’s

Character behavior; an incentive or inducement
Motivation for further action for a character in

• In responding to dramatic art, the

Character process of examining how the elements
of drama –literary, technical, and
Analysis performance –are used.

• The capacity to relate to the

Empathy feelings of another
In drama, there are 3 major elements which are literary,
technical, and performance elements. Literary
elements consist of plot, theme, characters, dialogue,
music, spectacle, convention, genre, and audience.
Technical elements consist of scenery (set), costumes,
properties, lights, sound, and makeup. And the last,
performance elements consist of acting, character
motivation, character analysis, and empathy. For each
element hold specific role in ensuring the success of a
drama, we have to pay attention to each element that
constructs it.
Thank You