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§ Scientific Management ± Frank Taylor
§ Determine the most efficient methods for
performing any work-related task
§ Time and motion studies
§ Assembly lines
§ Selection and recruitment of military recruits
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§ rgonomics / Human Factors
§ Intersection of engineering and psychology
§ Focuses on safety and efficiency of human-
machine interactions
§ Perception, attention, cognition, learning,
social, and environmental psychology
§ Applied psychology
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§ Hawthorne Studies (1927-1932)
§ How work conditions influence productivity
§ The Hawthorne ffect
§ Individual productivity increases when workers
are singled out and made to feel important
§ Performance is subject to social pressures and
group norms
§ Human Relations Approach
  
 

§ mphasis on how to use human resources to


increase efficiency and productivity
§ Job analysis and evaluation
§ mployee selection
§ Training
§ Performance appraisal
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§ Job Analysis
§ Generating a detailed job description
§ Follow a systematic procedure
§ Break the job into small units
§ Create an employee manual
§ Job-oriented description
§ Person-oriented description
§ KSAOs
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§ Job Analysis
§ ssential and nonessential job functions
§ Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

§ U.S. Department of Labor


§ Dictionary of Occupational Titles
§ Occupational Outlook Handbook

§ Job valuation
§ Compensable factors
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§ Recruitment

§ Testing
§ Integrity tests and biographical inventories

§ Interviews
§ Interviewer illusion
§ Structured interviews

§ Work Samples and  ercises


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§ Orientation
§ Acquaint employees with the organization and
with other employees

§ Formal Training
§ Overlearning ± making the task ³automatic´
§ mployee development

§ Mentoring
§ ³Natural´ mentoring relationships

    
§ valuating a person¶s success at their job

§ Sources of Bias
§ Halo effect
§ Distributional error
§ Leniency errors
§ Severity errors
§ Central tendency errors

    
§ 360-Degree Feedback
§ Collect evaluations of employee from
numerous sources
§ Variability suggests that ratings reflect
performance, not general impressions (liking)

§ Other Performance Measures


§ Thinking outside the bo
§ Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
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§ mphasis on research and practice
involving human relations
§ Management Approaches
§ Job Satisfaction
§ mployee Commitment
§ Meaning of Work
§ Leadership Styles
  
§ The ³Japanese´ Management Style

§ Theory X and Theory Y


§ Theory X managers motivate by e erting
control and threatening punishment
§ Theory Y managers motivate by allowing
workers to participate in problem solving

§ Strengths-Based Management
 
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§ Measuring Work Attitudes

§ Important Factors
§ Fairness of compensation
§ Personality characteristics of individuals
§ Cultural influences
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§ Long-term happiness is related to
§ Financial independence
§ Occupational attainment
§ Favorable evaluations

§ Job Withdrawal
§ Organizational Spontaneity
§ Approach Motivation
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§ Affective Commitment
§ motional attachment to the organization

§ Continuance Commitment
§ Perception of economic and social costs of
leaving the organization

§ Normative Commitment
§ Sense of obligation to the organization
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§ Jobs, Careers, and Callings
§ Job ± No training, personal control, freedom
§ Career ± Work as opportunity for advancement
§ Calling ± Work has value beyond economics

§ Relationship to Psychological Well-Being

§ Job Crafting
§ Physical and cognitive changes that individuals
make within e isting task constraints
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§ Transactional Leadership
§ mphasizes e change relationship between
workers and leader
§ Believes people are motivated by rewards and
punishments
§ Provides clarity and structure to employees
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§ Transformational Leadership
§ mphasizes vision for an organization

§ Four key elements


1. Providing idealized influence
2. Inspiring others to achieve
3. Intellectually stimulating employees
4. Showing concern for employee¶s well-being

§ Promotes organizational identity


  
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§ Genetic Contributions to Leadership
§ Personality traits and twin studies
§  traversion and achievement motivation
§ Transactional and transformational leadership

§ Big 5 Personality Traits and Leadership


§ High e traversion
§ High conscientiousness
§ Low neuroticism
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§ Shared values, beliefs, norms, and customs


§ Power culture
§ Role culture
§ Task culture
§ Person culture
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§ Positive Organizational Culture
§ Positive Reinforcement
§ Reward good work and acknowledge contributions
§ Incorporate fairness and safety
§ Compassion
§ mpathize with and alleviate suffering
§ Virtuousness
§ Do the right thing
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§ To ic Workplace Factors

§ Workplace Incivility

§ Se ual Harassment
§ *   se ual harassment
§ Hostile work environment se ual harassment

§ Workplace Violence