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Prepared by Ela GUNDOGDU

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE


I have watched that film. I haven’t watched that film. Have I watched that film?
You have seen him twice. You haven’t seen him twice. Have you seen him twice?
He / She / It has eaten lunch. He / She / It hasn’t eaten lunch. Has he / she / it eaten lunch?

We have invited her. We haven’t invited her. Have we invited her.


You have worked hard. You haven’t worked hard. Have you worked hard?
They have visited us. They haven’t visited us. Have they visited us?
USE OF PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
A) Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak bu tense’i kullanırız. Ancak
aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade ediyorsak «Simple Past» kullanmamız gerekir.

She has removed all the furniture in the house.


They have painted their house.
She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend.
They painted their house a few weeks ago.

NOT: Geçmişte yaptığımız eylem için zaman zarfı kullanmasak bile, eğer zamanı ima ediyorsak
yine «Simple Past» kullanırız.
I saw that film when I was in Ankara. (Kesin bir zaman verilmese de …when I was in Ankara…
geçmişte belli bir dönemi ifade eder.)
B) Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçları yada etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam
eden eylemler için bu tense’i kullanırız.

I have burnt myself. (I’m in pain now.)


I have cleaned the house. (It’s clean now.)

(Meeting a friend in the street)


-You have cut your hair!
-Yes, I went to barber’s last week.
C) Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century vb., henüz
tamamlanmamış bir dönemi ifade eden zarflarla bu tense’i kullanırız.
I’ve been to the cinema twice this week.
I haven’t been able to go on holiday this year.
Technology has advanced greatly this century.

NOT: Genellikle 13.00’e kadar olan süre sabah, 17.00’ye kadar öğleden sonra, 17.00-
20.00 arası ise akşam saatlerini bildirir. Bu durumda..
I haven’t heard the alarm this morning. (It’s 11.00 a.m. now.)
İfadesini sabah dilimin henüz bitmemiş olduğu bir saatte söyleyebiliriz.
Aksi durumda;
I didn’t hear the alarm this morning. (It’s 2 p.m. now.)
TIME EXPRESSION TURKISH MEANING EXAMPLE

Lately, recently Son zamanlarda, son There has been great progress in Science of Medicine
günlerde recently.
Yet (soru ve olumsuz cümlede) Henüz, hala -Have you finished your homework yet?
–No, I haven’t finished it yet.

Just (olumlu cümlede) Şimdi, yenice -Is the manager in? –No, he has just gone out.

Already (olumlu cümlede) Zaten, çoktan -Shall we go to see the film ‘The Lord of the Rings’?
–Not a good idea! I have already seen it.
Ever / Never Şimdiye kadar / Asla -Have you ever ridden on an elephant? –No, I’ve ridden a
camel once, but I’ve never ridden on an elephant.
So far (up to now, until now) Şimdiye kadar
For -dır, -dir (süreç bildirir) He has been the manager for three months.
They haven’t had opportunity to have holiday for years.
Since -den beri (başlangıç I last saw him in April, I haven’t seen him since then.
noktası belirtir) She has read 50 pages since I gave the book to her.
Once, twice, three times, several Bir keresinde, iki kez, üç She has invited me to her house many times, but I have
times, many times, all my life etc. kez, birkaç kez, çok kez never had any spare time.
vb. I’ve seen her parents only once.
 It is / It has been + a period of time + since + Simple Past
It is / It has been three months since I went to the cinema.
It is / It has been just two weeks since they got married.

 This is the first / second etc. time (that) + Present Perfect


This is the third time (that) he has played tennis, so he isn’t good at it.
This is the fifth cup of coffee (that) you have drunk in the last two hours.

 This is + superlative (that) + Present Perfect


This is the most boring book (that) I have ever read.
This is the most difficult situation (that) I have ever been in.
 Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde ise, yada sözü edilen yere gitmek üzere yola çıkmışsa
«GONE» kullanılır.
-I’d like to talk to your mother. Is she at home?
-No, she has gone shopping.

 Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde daha önce bulunduğunu ifade ediyorsa, yani konuşma
anında başka bir yerde ise «BEEN» kullanılır.
-Have you ever been abroad?
-Yes, I’ve been to Germany several times.
A) Fill in the correct form of the verb.
1. My brother _____ never _____ this film. (see)
2. Our school team _____ just ______ the competition. (win)
3. They _____ already _____ the test in Maths. (write)
4. He _____ ______ the report for the conference yet. (not, prepare)
5. I ______ already ______ an invitation to the wedding. (receive)
6. She _____ never _____ sushi in Japan. (eat)
7. We _____ ______ at this conference. (not, meet)
8. _____you ever _____ to India? (be)
9. We _____ just _____ the bus. (miss)
10. Whom _____ you just _____ an SMS? (send)
11. They _____ already _____ their homework. (do)
12. I _____ never _____ any planes in my life. (fly)
13. What _____ you already ______ for her birthday? (buy)
B) Rewrite the sentences putting the adverbs in the correct place.
1. Have you visited any famous museums? (ever)
Have you ever visited any famous museums?
_____________________________________________________________
2. They haven’t signed this contract. (yet)
They haven’t signed this contract yet.
_____________________________________________________________
3. She has spoken to her neighbour. (never)
She has never spoken to her neighbour.
_____________________________________________________________
4. We have finished our test in Maths. (just)
_____________________________________________________________
We have just finished our test in Maths.
5. They have gone to the swimming pool. (already)
They have already gone to the swimming pool.
______________________________________________________________
6. He has been to Australia. (never)
He has never been to Australia.
______________________________________________________________
7. I haven’t bought a new car. (yet)
I haven’t bought a new car yet.
______________________________________________________________
C) Write the answers using the words in brackets.
1. Have you washed the dishes? (just)
_____________________________________________________________
2. Have you seen this new film? (yet)
_____________________________________________________________
3. Have you been to New Zealand? (never)
_____________________________________________________________
4. Have you checked your homework? (already)
_____________________________________________________________
5. Have you phoned your friend today? (already)
_____________________________________________________________
6. Have you ever touched crocodiles? (never)
_____________________________________________________________
7. Have you drunk an apple juice today? (just)
______________________________________________________________
D) Underline the correct form of the verb.
1 I (went/ have been) to Italy last year.
2 I (didn't see/ haven't seen) Adam today. Is he ill?
3 My friends (arrived/ have arrived) at the theatre at seven o'clock.
4 (Has Tom finished / Did Tom finish) his dinner? Yes, he’s in his bedroom.
5 When (have you first met / did you first meet) your best friend?
6 My brother (hasn’t taken / didn't take) our dog for a walk yesterday.
7 Look! She is crying, she (broke / has broken) her leg.
8 (Have you played / did you play) baseball before?
9 They (had / have had) a party last Saturday.
10 (Did you watch / Have you watched) the football match last night?