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BACKGROUND OF
EDUCATION SECTOR IN
INDIA
‡ „    is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from
three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the
oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian
society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both
the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states
having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as
a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled.

‡ India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and
expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system
is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in
education has been credited to various private institutions. The private education market in India is
estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India
continues to face stern challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of its population is
still illiterate; only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. As of 2008,
India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age
population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack
either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges
in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of
265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over
the quality of education.
  
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