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Name: HASLIZA HASHIM Email: firstname.lastname@example.org HP No: 019-3426312
Content & Learning Objectives Content
²Historical development of the computer architecture ²Computer internal organisation, data representation methods and operation of a microprocessor-based system, including specification of hardware
²Able to relate computer organisation & architecture to contemporary computer design issues
Assessment This subject has the following assessment components.
Assessment Items Percentage of Final Mark Test Assignment Quiz Examination 10% 30% 20% 40%
Textbook and other Resources William Stallings, Computer Organisation and Architecture: Designing for Performance. Prentice Hall, 2000 Englander, Irv, The Architecture of Computer Hardware and System Software. Wiley, 2000 K.F. Ibrahim, PC Operation and Repair, Prentice Hall, 2002 www.intel.com www.ibm.com www.pcguide.com
DTT 201: Computer Architecture Chapter 1 Introduction
memory technology. ²e.Architecture & Organization 1 Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer ²Instruction set. will computer have a multiply instruction? Organization is how features are implemented ²Control signals. ²e. I/O mechanisms. number of bits used for data representation. interfaces. addressing techniques.g. will instruction be implemented by a multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition? .g.
Function of Microprocessor ? A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC. . or microchip).
Architecture & Organization 2 All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture This gives code compatibility ²At least backwards Organization differs between different versions .
Structure & Function Structure is the way in which components relate to each other Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure .
Function All computer functions are: ²Data processing ²Data storage All computer must has the capability of a storage device for the external environment eitherbeing written to or had from Move data between itself & outside world Computer act either as some/destination ²Data movement ²Control .
Functional View .
Operations (a) Data movement .
Operations (b) Storage .
Operation (c) Processing from/to storage .
Operation (d) Processing from storage to I/O .
Structure ² Top Level Peripherals Computer Central Processing Unit Main Memory Computer Systems Interconnection Input Output Communication lines .
Structure ² The CPU CPU Computer I/O System Bus Memory CPU Registers Arithmetic and Logic Unit Internal CPU Interconnection Control Unit .
Structure .The Control Unit Control Unit CPU ALU Internal Bus Registers Control Unit Sequencing Logic Control Unit Registers and Decoders Control Memory .
ENIAC .background Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Eckert and Mauchly University of Pennsylvania Trajectory tables for weapons Started 1943 Finished 1946 ²Too late for war effort Used until 1955 .
000 vacuum tubes 30 tons 15.000 additions per second .000 square feet 140 kW power consumption 5.details Decimal (not binary) 20 accumulators of 10 digits Programmed manually by switches 18.ENIAC .
ENIAC .cont Vacuum tubes .
von Neumann/Turing Stored Program concept Main memory storing programs and data ALU operating on binary data Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing Input and output equipment operated by control unit Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies ²IAS Completed 1952 .
Structure of von Neumann machine .
details Memory -> 1000 storage x 40 bit words ² Binary number ² Number word -> a sign bit & 39 bit value ² Instruction word -> 2 x 20 bit instructions Set of registers (storage in CPU) ² Memory Buffer Register ² Memory Address Register ² Instruction Register ² Instruction Buffer Register ² Program Counter ² Accumulator ² Multiplier Quotient .IAS .
Structure of IAS ² detail .
Commercial Computers 1947 .Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation Late 1950s .UNIVAC II ²Faster ²More memory .
the 701 ²IBM¶s first stored program computer ²Scientific calculations 1955 .IBM Punched-card processing equipment 1953 .the 702 ²Business applications Lead to 700/7000 series .
Transistors Replaced vacuum tubes Smaller Cheaper Less heat dissipation Solid State device Made from Silicon (Sand) Invented 1947 at Bell Labs William Shockley et al. .
Transistor Based Computers Second generation machines NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines IBM 7000 DEC .1957 ²Produced PDP-1 .
silicon wafer .³small electronics´ A computer is made up of gates. memory cells and interconnections These can be manufactured on a semiconductor e.g.Microelectronics Literally .
000 devices on a chip Ultra large scale integration ± 1991 ²Over 100.1965 on ²Up to 100 devices on a chip Medium scale integration .Generations of Computer Vacuum tube .1978 -1991 ²100.000.1958-1964 Small scale integration .1971-1977 ²3.000 .to 1971 ²100-3.000 .000 devices on a chip Large scale integration .000 devices on a chip Very large scale integration .1946-1957 Transistor .000.100.100.000 devices on a chip .
Moore·s Law Increased density of components on chip Gordon Moore ± co-founder of Intel Number of transistors on a chip will double every year Since 1970¶s development has slowed a little ² Number of transistors doubles every 18 months Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths. giving higher performance Smaller size gives increased flexibility Reduced power and cooling requirements Fewer interconnections increases reliability .
Growth in CPU Transistor Count .
more size .IBM 360 series 1964 Replaced (& not compatible with) 7000 series First planned ³family´ of computers ²Similar or identical ²Similar or identical ²Increasing speed ²Increasing number terminals) ²Increased memory ²Increased cost instruction sets O/S of I/O ports (i.e.
address and data signals) .000 ²$100k+ for IBM 360 Embedded applications & OEM BUS STRUCTURE ± Omnibus (96 separate signal paths to carry control.DEC PDP-8 1964 First minicomputer (after miniskirt!) Did not need air conditioned room Small enough to sit on a lab bench $16.
PDP-8 Bus Structure .DEC .
4004 ²First microprocessor ²All CPU components on a single chip ²4 bit Followed in 1972 by 8008 ²8 bit ²Both designed for specific applications 1974 .8080 ²Intel¶s first general purpose microprocessor .Intel 1971 .
Techniques built into processor Branch prediction ²Predicts which branches of instructions are likely to be processed ²Buffer pre-fetched instructions Data flow analysis ²Create an optimised schedule of instructions which are dependant on other¶s results ²Prevent delay Speculative execution ²Execute instructions in advance and holds the results in temporary locations ²Keep execution engines busy by executing needed instructions .
Performance Balance Processor speed increased Memory capacity increased Memory speed lags behind processor speed .
Logic and Memory Performance Gap .
Solutions Increase number of bits retrieved at one time ²Make DRAM ³wider´ rather than ³deeper´ Change DRAM interface ²Include cache Reduce frequency of memory access ²More complex cache and cache on chip Increase interconnection bandwidth ²High speed buses ²Hierarchy of buses .
Approaches to increase processor speed Increase hardware speed of processor ²Fundamentally due to shrinking logic gate size ± More gates. packed more tightly. increasing clock rate ± Propagation time for signals reduced Increase size and speed of caches ²Dedicating part of processor chip ± Cache access times drop significantly Change processor organization and architecture ²Increase effective speed of execution ²Parallelism .
Problems from Clock Speed and Logic Density Power ² Power density increases with density of logic and clock speed ² Dissipating heat RC delay ² Speed at which electrons flow limited by resistance and capacitance of metal wires connecting them ² Delay increases as RC product increases ² Wire interconnects thinner. increasing capacitance Memory latency ² Memory speeds lag processor speeds Solution: ² More emphasis on organizational and architectural approaches to improve performance . increasing resistance ² Wires closer together.
Intel Microprocessor Performance .
Strategies to increase performance Strategy 1: Increased Cache Capacity ²Typically two or three levels of cache between processor and main memory ²Chip density increased ± More cache memory on chip +Faster cache access ²Pentium chip devoted about 10% of chip area to cache ²Pentium 4 devotes about 50% .
cont Strategy 2: More Complex Execution Logic ²Enable parallel execution of instructions ²Pipeline works like assembly line ± Different stages of execution of different instructions at same time along pipeline ²Superscalar allows multiple pipelines within single processor ± Instructions that do not depend on one another can be executed in parallel .Strategies to increase performance .
Diminishing Returns Internal organization of processors is exceedingly complex ²Further increases in this direction is small Benefits from cache are reaching limit Increasing clock rate runs into power dissipation problem ²Some fundamental physical limits are being reached .
larger caches are justified ² Power consumption of memory logic less than processing logic Example: IBM POWER4 ² Two cores based on PowerPC . doubling number of processors almost doubles performance So. increase in performance proportional to square root of increase in complexity If software can use multiple processors. use two simpler processors on the chip rather than one more complex processor With two processors.New Approach ² Multiple Cores Multiple processors on single chip ² With large shared cache Within a processor.
Pentium Evolution (1) 8080 ² first general purpose microprocessor ² 8 bit data path ² Used in first personal computer ± Altair 8086 ² much more powerful ² 16 bit ² instruction cache. prefetch few instructions ² 8088 (8 bit external bus) used in first IBM PC 80286 ² 16 Mbyte memory addressable ² up from 1Mb 80386 ² 32 bit ² Support for multitasking .
Pentium Evolution (2) 80486 ²sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining ²built in maths co-processor Pentium ²Superscalar ²Multiple instructions executed in parallel Pentium Pro ²Increased superscalar organization ²Aggressive register renaming ²branch prediction ²data flow analysis ²speculative execution .
Pentium Evolution (3) Pentium II ² MMX technology ² graphics. video & audio processing Pentium III ² Additional floating point instructions for 3D graphics Pentium 4 ² Note Arabic rather than Roman numerals ² Further floating point and multimedia enhancements Itanium ² 64 bit ² see chapter 15 Itanium 2 ² Hardware enhancements to increase speed See Intel web pages for detailed information on processors .
RT PC. IBM RISC System/6000 ² RISC-like superscalar machine ² POWER architecture IBM alliance with Motorola and Apple ² Resulted in implementing PowerPC architecture PowerPC architecture derived from POWER architecture Result from PowerPC architecture ² Superscalar RISC ² Apple Macintosh ² Embedded chip applications . 801 minicomputer project (IBM) RISC Berkeley RISC I processor 1986. ² Not commercial success ² Many rivals with comparable or better performance 1990. IBM commercial RISC workstation product.PowerPC 1975.
32-bit machine 603: ² Low-end desktop and portable ² 32-bit ² Comparable performance with 601 ² Lower cost and more efficient implementation 604: ² Desktop and low-end servers ² 32-bit machine ² Much more advanced superscalar design ² Greater performance 620: ² High-end servers ² 64-bit architecture .PowerPC Family (1) 601: ² Quickly to market.
PowerPC Family (2) 740/750: ²Also known as G3 ²Two levels of cache on chip G4: ²Increases parallelism and internal speed G5: ²Improvements in parallelism and internal speed ²64-bit organization .
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