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.What is CALL? is the acronym for Computer Assisted Language Learning and it is related to the use of computers for language teaching and learning.
CALL Typology (1) the type of CALL packages that were available at the time (Davies & Higgins. 1982 and Davies & Higgins 1985): Gap-filling exercises Multiple-choice exercises Free-format exercises .
CALL Typology (2) Re-ordering exercises Simulations Adventures Action mazes Games Total Cloze: text manipulation Exploratory programs Writing .word-processing .
Phases of CALL Warschauer (1996) distinguishes 3 phases of CALL: Behaviouristic CALL Communicative CALL Integrative CALL .
Behaviouristic CALL late 70s. serving mainly as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the learner computer as a tutor which never grew tired or judgmental and allowed students to work at an individual pace . early 80s computer as a mechanical tutor.
. Phillips. 1984). teaching grammar implicitly. focus more on using forms.Communicative CALL (1) emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s used for skill practice. but in a non-drill format and with a greater degree of student choice. 1987. 1987. control and interaction. Underwood. and using the target language predominantly or even exclusively (Jones & Fortescue. allowing and encouraging students to generate original utterances.
writing or critical thinking (e.Communicative CALL (2) This phase also includes (a) using the computer to stimulate discussion. .g. using programs such as Sim City. and concordancers. reading mazes. spelling and grammar checkers. etc.) (b) using the computer as a tool or workhorse examples include word-processors.
g.Integrative CALL seeks both to integrate various skills (e. reading. speaking. listening. and writing) and also integrate technology more fully into the language learning process This phase is marked by the introduction of two important innovations: (a) Multimedia (b) The Internet ..
Restricted CALL Open CALL Integrated CALL .Approaches to CALL Bax (2003) prefers to talk about approaches rather than phases.
The term is more comprehensive." (Bax 2003:20) . to the teachers' role. more flexible and therefore more satisfactory as a descriptor. to the feedback offered to students and to other dimensions .all were relatively 'restricted'. but not all were 'behaviourist'.Restricted CALL "I call the first approach 'Restricted CALL¶«since it allows us to refer not only to a supposed underlying theory of learning but also to the actual software and activity types in use at the time.
software types and the role of the teacher. It includes simulations and games. this variety of CALL is more open in terms of feedback given to students. Bax argues that we are still using the Open CALL approach. .Open CALL According to Bax.
a wristwatch. embedded in everyday practice and hence 'normalised'. writing these are all technologies which have become normalised to the extent that we hardly even recognise them as technologies.Integrated CALL "This concept is relevant to any kind of technological innovation and refers to the stage when the technology becomes invisible. To take some commonplace examples. a pen. shoes." (Bax 2003:24) .
either collaboratively or competitively the fun factor variety in the resources available and learning styles used real-life skill-building in computer use .Benefits of CALL (1) multimodal practice with feedback individualization in a large class pair and small group work on projects.
.Benefits of CALL (2) exploratory learning with large amounts of language data Interest and Motivation Compatible Learning Style Immediate Feedback Optimal Use of ALT: Academic Learning Time (ALT) is the amount of time a student spends attending to relevant academic tasks while performing those tasks with a high rate of success.
How to use CALL in ELT As a resource (e.g. a source of material to be used in the class) on line or printed out? As a means of communication Between teacher and learner(s) Between learners .
As a tool Word-processing web-based teaching or learning materials As a replacement for teacher How does it replace a teacher? Presenting the language content Giving students language practice Giving students feedback or suggestions .
Don¶t panic when something goes wrong. Software varies in its complexity. Get to know the software before you use it. Co-operate with your students.Ti s f r si LL Software is more important than the hardware. .
Skills needed to use CALL: Searching Evaluating Communicating Creating .