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Definition
Standards
A document that, by agreement, serves as a
model in the measurement of a property or the
establishment of a procedures
ASTM Definition1

Code
When the use of a standard is mandatory
mandatory. A set of
applicable regulations which a jurisdictional body
has adopted1
Definition
Specification
A statement of the technical & commercial requirements
that a product must meet1

Recommended Practice
A set of instructions for performing one or more operations
or functions, other than ³Test Method´ 1

Test Method
A set of instruction for the identification, measurement or
evaluation of the properties of a material1
Standards Organisations
ASTM American Society for Testing & Materials
ASME American Society for Mechanical Engineers
AISI American Iron & Steel Institute
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
ANSI American National Standards Institute
AWS American Welding Society
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers
API American Petroleum Institute
vogo & Symbol

ASTM ASME AISI SAE

ANSI AWS NACE API


ASTM
‡ ASTM has published standards contained in 15
sections on various subjects
‡ The Metal related standards are:

Section Titles Volumes


1 Iron & Steel Products 7
2 Non-Ferrous Metal Products 5
3 Metals test methods & analytical 6
procedures
ASTM Designation
A 516/ A 516
516M
M ± 90 Grade 70
Single vetter Prefix Suffix M 90
General Classifications Standard written Year of Adoption
A Ferrous Metals in SI units or Revision
B Non-Ferrous Metals
C Ceramics & Concrete 1 to 4 Digits Grade, Type & Class
D Miscellaneous Materials Sequential Number
Number In this case Grade 70
E Miscellaneous Subjects Without any relationship indicates the minimum
G Corrosion Materials to the metal¶s properties tensile strength in ksi
ES Emergency Standards

ASTM standard oriented toward achieving particular mechanical


properties and allow the chemical composition to be adjusted
to achieve mechanical requirements1
ASTM Definition
Grade Chemical Composition
Type De-Oxidation Practice
Other characteristics such as Strength vevel or
Class
Surface Finish

‡ Within the ASTM standards, the terms are used to


identify a specific metal within a standard
‡ Used without any strict definition & essentially mean
the same thing
Rules of Thumb
Class, Type & Grade
ASTM A 106 - 91 Grade A, Grade B, Grade C
Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temperature service
‡ Increase in alphabet results in higher strength (tensile or yield) or
increase in carbon content
‡ Grade A C > 0.25% Tensile Strength > 48 ksi
‡ Grade B C > 0.30% Tensile Strength > 60 ksi
‡ Grade C C > 0.35% Tensile Strength > 70 ksi

ASTM A 276 Type 304, 316, 410


Stainless steel and heat resisting steel bars and shapes
‡The type indicates chemical composition which is based on AISI
‡ Type 304 18.0 ± 20.0 8.0 ± 10.5 Ni 0.08 C
‡ Type 316 Cr 10. ± 14.0 Ni 0.08 C 2.0 ± 3.0 Mo
‡ Type 410 16.0 ± 18.0 0.15 C
Cr
11.5 ± 13.0
Cr
Rules of Thumb
Class, Type & Grade
Pipe, Tube & Forging Products
‡ µGrade¶ designators for pipe, tube & forging products:
‡ P Pipe
‡ T Tube
‡ B Bolting
‡ TP Tubular Products: Tube or Pipe
‡ F Forging
‡ FP Forged Pipe
‡ C Cat Alloy
‡ CP Centrifugally Cast Pipe
‡ WP Fittings manufactured according to B16.9, 16.11, 16.28 or
SP79
‡Example
ASTM A 335 Grade P5 ASTM A 312 Grade TP 304
ASTM A 213 Grade T22 ASTM A 182 Grade F5
ASTM Designation
Cast Stainless Steels
HK XX M
1st vetter Optional Suffix
Type of Alloy Indicates Additional
C Corrosion Resistant Alloying Element
H Heat Resistant M Molybdenum

2nd vetter 2 Digits


Cr & Ni content Carbon Content in 1/100 %
Higher Alphabet indicates C Maximum C Content
increasing Ni content H Nominal C Content

The ASTM designation was adopted from the


Alloy Casting Institute (ACI) system
ASME
‡ Based on the ASTM standards and in most cases, identical to
ASTM standards
‡ An µà
චis placed in front of the ASTM standard identification
number to indicate an ASME Section II material.
ASTM ASME
A691 SA691
‡ The materials standards adopted is in The ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section II, Part A and B
X Part A: Ferrous Material Standards
X Part B: Non-Ferrous Material Standards
‡ Some of the ASTM standards have been edited to
accommodate the ASME BPVC
AISI /SAE
Carbon & Alloy Steels2

XXXX
1st & 2nd Digit 3rd & 4th Digit
Type of Steels & Carbon Content in 1/100 %
Nominal Alloy Content
Optional vetter after
1xxx Carbon Steels
2xxx Nickel Steel 2nd Digit
3xxx Ni-Cr Steels xxBxx Boron is Added
4xxx Molybdenum Steels xxvxx vead is Added
5xxx Chromium Steels xxMxx Merchant (veast Restrictive )Quality
xxExx Electric Furnace Steels
xxHxx Hardenability Requirements
AISI/SAE Classification for Carbon
& Alloy Steels4
Carbon Steels
10xx Plain Carbon Mn < 1.0
11xx Resulfurised
12xx Resulfurised & Rephosphorised
15xx Plain Carbon Mn > 1.0

Manganese Steels
13xx Mn 1.75

Nickel Steels
23xx Ni 3.50
25xx Ni 5.00
AISI/SAE Classification for Carbon
& Alloy Steels4
Nickel ± Chromium Steels
31xx Ni 1.25 Cr 0.65 or 0.80
32xx Ni 1.70 Cr 1.07
33xx Ni 3.50 Cr 1.50 or 1.57
34xx Ni 3.00 Cr 0.77

Molybdenum Steels
40xx Mo 0.20 or
0.25
44xx Mo 0.40 or
0.52

Chromium ± Molybdenum Steels


41xx Cr 0.50 or 0.80 or 0.95 Mo 0.12 or 0.20 or 0.25 or 0.30
AISI/SAE Classification for Carbon
& Alloy Steels4
Nickel ± Chromium ± Molybdenum Steels
43xx Ni 1.82 Cr 0.50 or 0.80 Mo 0.25
43BVxx Ni 1.82 Cr 0.50 Mo 0.12 or V > 0.03
0.24
47xx Ni 1.05 Cr 0.45 Mo 0.20 or
0.35
81xx Ni 0.30 Cr 0.40 Mo 0.12
86xx Ni 0.55 Cr 0.50 Mo 0.20
87xx Ni 0.55 Cr 0.50 Mo 0.35
88xx Ni 0.55 Cr 0.50 Mo 0.35
93xx Ni 3.25 Cr 1.20 Mo 0.12
94xx Ni 0.45 Cr 0.40 Mo 0.12
97xx Ni 0.55 Cr 0.20 Mo 0.20
98xx Ni 1.00 Cr 0.80 Mo 0.25
AISI/SAE Classification for Carbon
& Alloy Steels4
Nickel ± Molybdenum Steels
46xx Ni 0.85 or 1.82 Mo 0.20 or 0.25
48xx Ni 3.50 Mo 0.25

Chromium Steels
50xx Cr 0.27 or 0.40 or 0.50 or 0.65
51xx Cr 0.80 or 0.87 or 0.82 or 0.92 or 0.95 or 1.00 or 1.05
50xxx Cr 0.50 C > 1.00
51xxx Cr 1.02 C > 1.00
52xxx Cr 1.45 C > 1.00

Chromium ± Vanadium Steels


61xx Cr 0.60 or 0.80 or 0.95 V > 0.10 or > 0.15
AISI/SAE Classification for Carbon
& Alloy Steels4
Tungsten ± Chromium Steels
72xx W 1.75 Cr 0.75

Silicon ± Manganese Steels


92xx Si 1.40 or 2.00 Mn 0.65 or 0.82 or 0.85 Cr 0.00 or 0.65

‡The boron-containing steels are low-alloy steels with boron added in


the amount
‡of 0.0005±0.003%. Boron is a strong hardenability element. The
leaded steels
‡contain 0.15±0.35% lead for improved machinability (however, lead is
no longer
‡favored as an alloying addition because of health concerns).
AISI
Stainless Steels2
XXXv
XXX v
1st Digit Suffix (Optional)
Alloy Class Detail description of Alloy
content
2xx Cr-Ni-Mn Austenitic SS 2nd & 3rd Digit
3xx Cr-Ni Austenitic SS
Running Numbers
4xx Ferritic & Martensitic SS
Not related to chemical
No systematic way to distinguish composition
Between Ferritic & Martensitic in
4xx series

‡ Many stainless steel such as Precipitation Hardening &


Duplex are not covered by AISI
‡ Hence proprietary/trade names are in widespread use
AISI Alloy Class for Stainless
Steels2
Series Description
2xx Cr-Mn-Ni Austenitic
Non-hardenable & non-magnetic
3xx Cr-Ni Austenitic
Non-hardenable & Non-magnetic
4xx Cr Ferritic or martensitic
Magnetic & martensitic can be hardened
5xx Straight Cr Steel Ferritic
Magnetic & hardenable
6xx Precipitation Hardenable
AISI Suffix for Stainless Steels2
AISI Suffix
Description Benefits
Designator
xxxv Very vow C < 0.03% Improved Intergranular
Corrosion
xxxS vow C < 0.08%
xxxN Added N Increased Strength
xxxvN vow C <0.03% & Added N
xxxF Higher S & P Improved Machinability
xxxSe Added Se Better Machined Surfaces
xxxB Added Si Increase Scaling Resistance
xxxH Wider C Range
xxxCu Added Cu
Issue
‡ Metallic materials have been given many
designations including popular trade-names
‡ There has been little agreement among the
organizations on how to name materials
‡ Cause confusion between equipment specifiers
and manufacturers on which designations to use
‡ To alleviate this problem, a number of technical
& trade associations have recently collaborated
to standardize alloy designations
UNS: Unified Numbering System
UNS
‡ Developed jointly by the SAE & ASTM
‡ The most widely accepted designation system
‡ The objective of UNS Designation is2:
X Simplify the many differing standards
X Gives trade names a generic number
X Consistent designation ± computer friendly
‡ Provides the uniformity necessary for efficient
indexing, record keeping, data storage and
retrieval, and cross-referencing3
UNS Designation
A XXXXX
Single vetter Prefix 5 Digits
Metal Groups Represent Particular
18 Series Alloy in the Group
In many cases is suggestive of
the family of metals it identifies Significance & Meaning of the
digits of each series is
A Aluminum alloys independent with other series
C Copper alloys
N Nickel alloys
S Stainless steels

UNS system is detailed in ASTM E527 and SAE J1068


UNS Series
Ferrous Non
Non--Ferrous
S Heat and Corrosion A Aluminium & Alloys
Resistance (Stainless) Steels C Copper & Alloys
T Tool Steels v vow Melting Metals
D Steel with Specified E Rare Earth Metals
Mechanical Properties M Miscellaneous Non-Ferrous
F Cast Irons N Nickel & Alloys
G AISI & SAE Carbon Steels P Precious Metals
H AISI H-Steels R Reactive & Refractory
J Cast Steels Z Zinc & Alloys
K Miscellaneous Steels & Welding Filler
Ferrous Alloys W Welding Filler Material
UNS Series
Welding Filler Metal
Composition of Filler Metal Metal UNS
Composition of Weld Deposit W

Subdivision
No of
Suffix Example of Metals
Subgroups
E Actinium, Cerium, Terbium, Scandium 18
v Mercury, vead, Sodium, Tin 14
M Arsenic, calcium, uranium, magnesium, silicon 12
P Gold, platinum, silver 8
R Boron, Molybdenum, niobium, tungsten, titanium 14
UNS Designator for Stainless
Steels
AISI Suffix
UNS No. Description
Designator
xxxv xxx01 vow Carbon < 0.03%
xxxS xxx08 vow Carbon < 0.08%
xxxN xxx51 Added Nitrogen
xxxvN xxx53 vow Carbon <0.03% & Added N
xxxF xxx20 Higher Sulphur & Phosphorus
xxxSe xxx23 Added Selenium
xxxB xxx15 Added Silicon
xxxH xxx09 Wider Carbon Range
xxxCu xxx30 Added Cupper
ANSI
‡ An impartial organisation that does not
develop standards2
‡ Acts as national coordinator
‡ Validates the general acceptability of
standards developed by other organisations
‡ Guarantees that anyone who affected by the
standard used an opportunity:
X To participate in development works
X Comment on the documents provision
‡ Ensure developed standards does not conflict
with or duplicate other standards
Reference
1. Process Industries Corrosion ± The Theory and Practice, Chapter
Materials Standards and Codes, NACE
2. CASTI (1998), ˜ 

, Volume 1: Ferrous Metals,
3rd Edition
3. Don Bushi à      , Fisher
Controls International, Inc
4. ASM Metals Reference Book, Second Edition