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Today¶s Objectives
Students will be able to :
a) Represent a 3-D vector in a In-Class Activities
Cartesian coordinate system.
‡ Reading Quiz
b) Find the magnitude and
coordinate angles of a 3-D vector ‡ Applications / Relevance
c) Add vectors (forces) in 3-D ‡ A Unit Vector
space ‡ 3-D Vector Terms
‡ Adding Vectors
‡ Concept Quiz
‡ Examples
‡ Attention Quiz
  

Ö. Vector algebra, as we are going to use it, is based on a


___________ coordinate system.
A) Euclidean B) left-handed
C) Greek D) right-handed E) Egyptian

2. The symbols V, , and  designate the __________ of a


3-D Cartesian vector.
A) unit vectors B) coordinate direction angles
C) Greek societies D) x, y and z components
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üany problems in real-life


involve 3-Dimensional Space.

How will you represent


each of the cable forces in
Cartesian vector form?
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(continued)

Given the forces in the cables, how will you determine


the resultant force acting at D, the top of the tower?
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For a vector Y with a magnitude of
A, an unit vector is defined as Y 
Y/A.
Characteristics of a unit vector
a) Its magnitude is Ö.
b) It is dimensionless.
c) It points in the same direction as the
original vector (Y).
The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis
system are , , and . They are unit
vectors along the positive x, y, and z
axes respectively.
þ |  |   

Consider a box with sides AX,


AY, and AZ meters long.

The vector Y can be defined as


Y AX ëAY  ë AZ m

The projection of the vector Y in the x-y plane is A´. The


magnitude of this projection, A´, is found by using the same
approach as a 2-D vector: A´ = (AX2 + AY2)Ö/2 .
The magnitude of the position vector Y can now be obtained as
A = ((A´)2 + AZ2) § = (AX2 + AY2 + AZ2) §
þ |  |   
(continued)
The direction or orientation of vector Y is defined
by the angles V, , and .
These angles are measured between the vector
and the positive X, Y and Z axes, respectively.
Their range of values are from 0° to Ö 0°
Using trigonometry, ³direction cosines are found using the formulas

These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the following equation.
j V ëj  ëj  
This result can be derived from the definition of a coordinate direction angles
and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector of any
position vector:

or written another way,  Y = cos V ëcos  ëcos   4


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j 4 
Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy
to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as
when 2-D vectors are added.

For example, if
Y = AX + AY  + AZ  and
 = BX + BY  + BZ , then
Y ë (AX + BX) + (AY + BY)  ë(AZ + BZ) 
or
Y Õ  (AX - BX) + (AY - BY)  ë(AZ - BZ) .
   

Sometimes 3-D vector information is given as:


a) üagnitude and the coordinate direction angles, or
b) üagnitude and projection angles.

You should be able to use both these types of


information to change the representation of
the vector into the Cartesian form, i.e.,
O = {Ö0 ± 20  + 30 } N .
 
Two forces O and are applied
to a hook. Force O is shown in
the figure and it makes 60°
angle with the X-Y plane. Force
is pointing up and has a
magnitude of 0 lb with V =
ÖÖÖ° and = 69.3°.
 The resultant force in the
Cartesian vector form.

Ö) Using geometry and trigonometry, write O and in the
Cartesian vector form.
2) Then add the two forces.
Solution : First, resolve force O.
Fz = Ö00 sin 60° = 6.60 lb
F' = Ö00 cos 60° = 50.00 lb

Fx = 50 cos 45° = 35.36 lb


Fy = 50 sin 45° = 35.36 lb

Now, you can write:


O = {35.36 ± 35.36  + 6.60 } lb
Now resolve force .
We are given only V and . Hence, first we need to find the value
of .
Recall the formula cos ² (V) + cos ² ( ) + cos ² () = Ö.
Now substitute what we know. We have
cos ² (ÖÖÖ°) + cos ² (69.3°) + cos ² () = Ö.
Solving, we get  = 30.22° or Ö20.2°. Since the vector is pointing
up,  = 30.22°
Now using the coordinate direction angles, we can get   and
determine = 0  lb.
= { 0 ( cos (ÖÖÖ°) + cos (69.3°)  + cos (30.22°)  )} lb
{ 2 .67 ë2 .2  ë69.Ö3  } lb
  p = O +

p = {6.69 ± 7.0  + Ö56 } lb
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Ö. If you know just Y, you can determine the ________ of Y


uniquely.
A) magnitude B) angles (V, and )
C) components (AX, AY, & AZ) D) All of the above.

2. For an arbitrary force vector, the following parameters are


randomly generated. üagnitude is 0.9 N, V = 30º, = 70º,  =
Ö00º. What is wrong with this 3-D vector ?
A) üagnitude is too small.
B) Angles are too large.
C) All three angles are arbitrarily picked.
D) All three angles are between 0º to Ö 0º.
   
 The screw eye is subjected
to two forces.
 The magnitude and the
coordinate direction angles
of the resultant force.



Ö) Using the geometry and trigonometry, write O and O in the


Cartesian vector form.
2) Add O and O to get Op.
3) Determine the magnitude and V, ,  .
    (continued)

First resolve the force O .


FÖz
FÖz = 300 sin 60° = 2594 N

F´ = 300 cos 60° = Ö5040 N
F¶ can be further resolved as,
FÖx = -Ö50 sin 45° = -Ö064Ö N
FÖy = Ö50 cos 45° = Ö064Ö N

Now we can write :


O = {-Ö064Ö + Ö064Ö  + 2594  } N
    (continued)
The force O can be represented in the
Cartesian vector form as:
O = 500{ cos 60° + cos 45°  +
cos Ö20°  } N
= { 250 + 35346  ± 250  } N
Op = O + O
= { Ö4349 + 45946  + 9. Ö  } N
FR = (Ö4349 2 + 45946 2 + 94 Ö 2) § = 4 Ö.7 = 4 2 N
V = cos-Ö (FRx / FR) = cos-Ö (Ö4349/4 Ö47) = 7246°
= cos-Ö (FRy / FR) = cos-Ö (45946/4 Ö47) = Ö744°
 = cos-Ö (FRz / FR) = cos-Ö (94 Ö/4 Ö47) = 4 °
  
Ö. What is not true about an unit vector, Y *
A) It is dimensionless.
B) Its magnitude is one.
C) It always points in the direction of positive X- axis.
D) It always points in the direction of vector Y.

2. If O = {Ö0 + Ö0  + Ö0 } N and
= {20 + 20  + 20  } N, then O + = { ____ } 
A) Ö0 + Ö0  + Ö0 
B) 30 + 20  + 30 
C) -Ö0 - Ö0  - Ö0 
D) 30 + 30  + 30