Você está na página 1de 32

(1) Materials

Reinforced Concrete
VS Steel

Reinforced Concrete Materials

 good resistance to weather & chemical, and good sound and thermal insulation
 the structure system is more rigid, thus, less severe problem associated with
sway deflection, floor vibration, and local column buckling
 higher fire resistance
 minimal maintenance is required
 materials required to make concrete are readily available in the local market,
thus no pre-ordering is necessary
 local contractors are firmly familiar with RC construction
 can be cast into any versatile shape, thus, allow more flexible design
 fairly tolerable on last minute changes from Client and Architect
 waterproofing can be easily applied with different degree of waterproofing
 can produce a good finished surface, thus, no painting is necessary

Reinforced Concrete Materials

 general heavier and hence more expensive foundation resulted
 special care must be taken to ensure esthetic appearance against cracks
induced by creeping and shrinkage effects
 intensive amount of falsework and shuttering are required
 easily affected by weather condition, this will prolong construction time

. shallow foundation. suitable for long span construction. less expansive foundation can be designed (i.)  assembly is simple. thus. thus. more space will be provided for service routing  with high strength to weigh ratio.Steel Materials Advantage  fast construction. since all members can be pre-fabricated prior to delivery to site  structure tends to be shallower in structural depth.e. weather independent  flooring can be cast at the same time where formwork are provided by un- propped corrugated steel decking  lightweighted.

Steel Materials Disadvantage  Long pre-ordering and delivery time would be required since majority members are to be import from overseas  Early decision on member size & connection details are required so as to allow for ordering and shop drawing preparation. Vermiculite/gypsum/cement system)  External System (Mineral fibre boards/batts. Plasterboard)  Preformed System  Intumescent Coatings  Water or Concrete filled structural hollow sections  Concrete casings .  Steel members require special treatment and protection on fire & corrosion. Vermiculite/gypsum boards.  Special surface treatments are needed:  Low cost – Sprayed System (Mineral fibre sprayed systems.

and welding  large area on site is required for storage of structural member prior to erection  sensitive to temperature change and vibration  steel members will deflect appreciably under total load. erection. needs pre-cambering  fabrication needs heavy plant and crane .Steel Materials Disadvantage  frequent maintenance is required  skilful labors are required for fabrication.

(2) Structural Systems •Vertical Load Supporting System • Lateral Load Supporting System (x & y directions) .

Structural Systems Cantilever without back span Columns do not vertically align Too long cantilevers Cantilever from column without back span Heavy loading on long span transfer beam Long Slender Columns .

(3) Structural Forms Floor Supporting Systems .

Structural Forms (Floor Supporting System) w • Shear α L L • Moment α L2 • Deflection α L4 Deflection depends on: •Span •Structural Depth •Loading •Restraints .

Different forms of Bracing Structural Forms (Bracing) .


Sydney. Australia .Athletic Centre.

State Hockey Centre .


Irregular Form .

Federation Square .



(4) Preliminary Member Sizing .

Typical service zone requirements .

Reinforced Concrete RC beams Typical s /d Typical span Continuous 15 – 20 Up to 10m 10 – 15 10 – 20m Simply supported 12 – 15 Up to 10m 8 – 12 10 – 20m Cantilever 5–7 7m .

increase Ireq by 1.3 + Precamber by L/250 .Steel Element Typical s /d Typical span Floor beams (UB’s) 15 – 18 Up to 12m (include floor slab Plate girder 10 – 12 Up to 12m Castellated UB’s * 14 – 17 12 – 20m Lattice girders (RSA’s) + 12 – 15 Up to 35m Lattice girders (Tubular) 15 – 18 Up to 100m Roof trusses (pitch >20o) 14 – 15 Up to 17m Space Frames 20 – 24 Up to 60m * Avoid if high point loads.

Typical column size .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

Appendix: Preliminary design charts (cont’d) .

1999. Structural scheme design guide.  Institution of Structured Engineers. Boston. Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures. London. the Institution. 1998.(4) References  Fuller Moore. the Institution. 1985.  Institution of Structured Engineers. London. 1989. Arup Research & Development. WCB/McGraw-Hill. London. Understanding Structures.  Ove Arup & Partners. Manual for the design of steelwork building structures. .