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Overhead

Crane
Operator
Safety Training

a subsidiary of the Schnitzer Corporation

Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.


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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

Cascade Steel recognizes that education, continual learning, skills


development, and a successful business go hand-in-hand. To assist in
developing essential skills for our personnel this course along with others
are being introduced.

We also encourage professional certification and development of skills


through recognized organizations.

Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.



Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of the classroom training the operators will be
able to pass a written examination demonstrating comprehension of the
safety rules, policies and procedures for the safe operation and use of
overhead cranes.


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While the 9    
 for operating overhead cranes
safely are generic in nature our actual policy and procedures may vary by
department. This training program is intended to be an operator training
course which can be attended by all personnel in our facility who operate
overhead cranes.

There may be       


 
    9  
    9  
  9
 9 
. You will be familiarized
with those specific operating rules and procedures at your department in
addition to this core curriculum. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of the hands-on portion of the training program
the students will be able to demonstrate the proper skills necessary for the
safe operation and use of overhead cranes


  
While the 
  
 
      for operating
overhead cranes safely are generic in nature the actual policy and procedures
may vary by department. This training program and practical operating
instructions are intended to be an operator training course which can be
attended by all personnel in our facility who operate overhead cranes.

         


 
    9 


 
  
    9  

  of the facility. You will be familiarized with those specific practical
operating rules, applications and procedures in addition to this core
curriculum. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The sources of the rules


and regulation for the safe
use of overhead cranes
‡ The training and testing
requirements for
operators
‡ The four-step process of
the Cascade Steel Rolling
Mills Operator Training
Program

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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The rules, regulations and standards governing the maintenance, inspection
and operation of overhead cranes are derived from the following sources;

‡ *+)
29CFR§1910.179

‡  
, Industry
Standards B30.2, B30.11,
B30.17

‡ Individual !!
OAR §1910.179

‡ %( !%-##!% !'#


and  '&./.') /
and procedures Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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To become qualified on overhead cranes at our facility, you must complete a
9 
   ;

1. Core classroom training and


pass the written exam

2. Site specific Training

3. Practical instruction on
operation and practice time

4. Pass a practical evaluation

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. At least 18 years old

2. No mental or physical issues


that would render you
incapable of safe operation

3. Physically able to enter, exit


and operate the crane as
required

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Core Training Program you will understand:

1. Any potential hazards and how to


respond to them

2. Instructions, warning and


precautions for safe operation

3. Rules and techniques for your


crane

4. Proper loading, elevating,


movement and set down

5. Steps for securing the crane

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Prior to operating you must be aware of all potential hazards that will effect the
safe operation of the crane, specifically;
1. Poor or slippery surface conditions

2. Obstacles in the load¶s path

3. Obstacles in the cranes path

4. Obstacles in your walking path

5. Other equipment in the work area

6. Pedestrian traffic aisles and


walkways

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Prior to operating an unfamiliar crane within your classification you are
authorized and qualified in, you must;
1. Locate the emergency power panel

2. Become familiar with all control


functions and safety devices

3. Operate the hoisting and traveling


functions for a sufficient amount of
time prior to lifting a load

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon sucessful completion of the core training program and practical operator
training and evaluation you will be issued a laminated operators ID card.
1. ID card shows the issue date, evauation
date, evaluators name, types of cranes
authorized to operate

2. We will retain all the training records and


documentation of initial training in our
HR files.

3. To maintain certification you must be


trained and evaluated if you are
assigned to operate a totally different
type of crane, involved in an accident or
if you are assigned a new job with
different skill set requirements. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ Identification of the
different classifications of
overhead cranes in our
facility

‡ Identification of the basic


overhead crane parts and
components.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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A crane whose movements


are controlled by an operator
through the use of controllers
located in a cab that is
attached to the crane.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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An overhead or gantry crane


that operates outdoors and for
which provisions are to
available for storage in an area
that provides protection to the
crane from weather conditions,
An indoor crane that may
operate outdoors on a periodic
basis is not classified as an
outdoor crane.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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A crane with a single or


multiple girder movable
bridge carrying a movable
or fixed hoisting
mechanism and traveling
on an overhead fixed
runway structure.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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An overhead crane used for


transporting or pouring hot
molten material.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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A crane having a jib with or


without trolley, and supported
from a side wall or line of
columns of a building, It is a
traveling type and operates on a
runway attached to the side wall
or columns.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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A crane having a frame with


or without trolley and
supported with free-standing
base secured to the floor.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.


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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.


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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.



Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

Mechanical Jpper Limit Switch

Rail Stops or End Stops


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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

Examples of hand held and


waist type remote controllers
you may see on our
overhead cranes.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

Examples of the basic lower


load blocks you will see on
some of our cranes.

Examples of the hoisting


chains you may find on some
overhead cranes.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

Examples of hoisting wire


rope you will find on our
overhead cranes. Multipart
reeved for two or four parts.

Examples of hoisting wire


rope you will find on our
overhead cranes multi part
reeved for 10 parts.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

  



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Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.

Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ Definitions and frequency


requirements for
inspections

‡ Pre shift inspection


requirments and rejection
criteria.

‡ Operator responsibilities
and the checklist

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training


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Inspections for Overhead Cranes are comprised of three general classification
or types. Ú         
   
Ú 
. It
is referred to as the Pre-Operational or Pre-Shift Inspection.
1. Initial Inspection (after initial
installation by the installer).

4 *$%!(daily to monthly
intervals). Normally performed by
the operator or other assigned
person. (Pre-Op or Pre-Shift)

3. Periodic (1 to 12 month intervals).


Normally performed by trained
maintenance inspector.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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'!'%#/'% , your canes immediate working and traveling area
must be visually checked and inspected for the following hazards.

1. Overhead obstructions in your path of travel.


2. Other overhead cranes on the same rails, or in the same proximity.
3. Mobile crane or aerial lifts where the boom is elevated into your
path.
4. Tall equipment or machinery which may be an obstacle.
5. Pedestrian aisles or doorways. Jse extreme caution around doors.
6. Obstacles, slippery surfaces or problems in your walking path.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training


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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. No apparent damage, excessive wear, or deformation on any load


bearing part.
2. All safety devices, braking devices, limit switches, load indicators,
controls and other operating parts must be in proper working order.
3. Any condition found by inspection that is determined to be a hazard to
continued operation shall be corrected before continued use of the
crane.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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'!' 3#3(! the crane must be inspected by someone trained to identify
unsafe operating conditions that may have arisen during use of the equipment.
Be sure to check with your individual departments to verify the checklist.
1. Ensure controller and all controls function properly.
2. Must have a legible safety label on remotes.
3. Pendent controller has support cable.
4. Inspect wire rope or hoisting chain for visible damage.
5. Check load block, hook and latch for proper operation and visible
damage.
6. Check upper limit switches for proper operation.
7. Listen for unusual sounds when verifying all crane functions.
8. Inspect all rigging or engineered below the hook devices.
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This is a sample of a typical
overhead crane checklist.

Be sure to utilize the cranes


checklist specific to the
cranes in your departement.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The main parts of wire rope


‡ Multiple parts of line advantage
‡ The external issues that effect
wire rope longevity and life
‡ How to perform the required
daily inspection for wire and
chain
‡ The external issues that effect
the hoisting chain¶s longevity
and life
‡ The parameters and rejection
crieria for wire rope and chain
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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The majority of our overhead cranes are equipped with a wire rope hoisting
cable.
In order for the mechanical hoisting winch to safely and successfully hoist a load
off the ground, the wire rope spooled on the cranes drum must provide the
following:

1. Sufficient length to reach the intended load.


2. Sufficient rated load capacity per part of line.
3. Sufficient parts of line.
4. Appropriate condition to ensure full rated load.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Wire Rope has 4 basic parts: The Core,
Strands, Wires and a Center Wire.
2. Rope lay length: The distance or length
it takes one strand to fully rotate one-
time around the core and come back to
the same side (for 6x19 wire rope it
would be the distance between every
3 
seventh strand). This measurement is
used in determining broken wire
rejection criteria.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Consists of core and 1 strand layer4
2. 6x19 has 6 strands and 19 wires per
strand.
3. Overhead crane hoisting lines are IWRC
(Independent Wire Rope Core (steel
core)
3 
 Overhead cranes used
in our Hot Metal work utilize a
specialized heavy duty 8x19
or 7x19 IWRC wire rope

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. BS is the absolute factory pull test strength4
2. You do not get to use this.
3. You must still apply the industry safety margins or design factors.
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Breaking Strength (BS) of 9/16´ IPS IWRC is_________ tons x 2000 lbs/ton =____________ lbs.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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 One or more length's of rope from trolley or
equalizer sheaves to load block or ball.

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The rated load that the wire rope can hoist
with one part of line.


**This is what you divide the Breaking Strength
by to get your capacity (SWL) per part of line. (safety margin)

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Calculate the SWL for one part of 9/16´ IWRC
from the chart, using a DF of 3.5. = ________ Albs

Jsing the SWL for the 9/16 IWRC rope listed above, what is the total
capacity for the wire on each of these two blocks?

4 parts 8 parts

A: __________________ B. ______________
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Breaking strength (BS) of 9/16´ RRL IPS IWRC is _________ tons


x 2000 lbs/ton =____________ lbs. ÷ ______ = SWL ________ PPL

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Steel core (IWRC) is stronger than fiber core
(FC)4
2. (XIPS or EIPS) steel is stronger than (IPS).

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1. Avoid dragging the hoisting rope4
2. Ensure hoisting rope is running in the sheave
grooves.
3. Never bend the hoisting rope around anything
but the sheaves.
4. Ropes require lubrication.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Visually inspect (parts you


can see) to ensure capacity is
still valid4
2. Document on departments
daily inspection log.
3. Do not use if reject criteria
has been met or exceeded.
Notify maintenance to
conduct further examination.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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m4 '1î# 4 broken wires in 1 strand or 12 broken wires in all


strands of 1 rope lay length4(Hot Metal Cranes rejection is 3 in 1
strand or 6 in all strands). 2 or more broken wires in an end socket.
4 *)!.'!# On outerwires where wires are less than 2/3 normal
thickness.
j4  #&! Indicating core break or failure
{4 #!'!': Kinking, crushing, bird caging, displaced wires
4 !& From any cause
^4 +% !'"))&! Significant reduction (varies by
rope size)
r4 '1î#'!%+ Coming from between strands (valley
break or fishhooks) usually from the core.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Identify the applicable wire rope rejection criteria for the pictures above.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Some overhead cranes utilize a hoisting chain instead of wire rope. There
are two basic types of this hoisting chain.


A. Solid welded link chain to be used B. Formed link chain which


in a sheave for two or more parts of attached directly to load hook
chain4 usually on smaller cranes with
one part of chain.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Never exceed the load rating4
2. Ensure the load is uniformly applied ina direct
vertical tension to a straight length of chain.
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Certain conditions will decrease the
rated capacity of the chain.
1. Twisting or angle loading4
2. Deterioration by straining.
3. Weathering and corrosion.
4. Rapid application of load or jerking.
5. Applied excessive force.
6. Prolonged exposure to extreme
{- heat (cobbles) Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Hoisting Chain is made of grade 8, 80 or better Alloyed Steel. It will deform or
disfigure to give you a visual warning of overloading or abuse.

Jse the departmental checklist and visually check the hoisting chain at the
intervals noted and recommended for your particular area or crane.
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1. Wear between links 6. Bending of links
2. Nicks 7. Weld splatter
3. Cracks 8. Discoloration from temperature.
4. Breaks 9. Signs of lengthening or stretching
5. Gouges

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Identify the applicable chain rejection criteria for the pictures above.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The main components of


hook;
‡ The load ratings for hooks;
‡ The external issues that
affect the hook¶s longevity
and life;
‡ How to perform the required
daily inspection and the
rejection criteria for overhead
crane hoisting hooks;
‡ How to properly seat the
rigging or engineered lifting
devices into the load hook for
overhead hoisting. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.

Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Actually supports the rigging or lifting device4
2. Made to deform before losting ability.
3. Latches are designed to retain rigging.

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1. Never exceed rating 5. Center the load in the bowl
2. Know load weight 6. Never carry load on latches
3. Jse hook as mfg intended 7. Keep body parts from
4. Never shock, point, side or between the load and hook
backload the hook 8. Verify proper engagement
and latches are closed
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Inspecting load hooks is part of our daily pre-op
checklist. Jse the appropriate checklist for your
particular area or department.

Hooks showing any of the following will be


immediately removed from service for futher
evaluation.

m4 ('&!': Bending or twisting exceeding 10 degrees4


4 3'!.: Distortion exceeding 15%
j4  1#9  1#'î: Any wear exceeding 10%
{4 '(% !'! 3: If originally equipped with one

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Identify the applicable hook rejection criteria for the pictures above.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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An assembly of the hook, swivel, bearings, frame
and sheaves. Increases the ability of the winch
and cable to do work by mechanical advantage.
Changes the direction of the wire rope.

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1. Visually inspect prior to using the crane for
your shift.
2. Remove from service if visual evidence of
excessive wear, corrosion or deformation.
3. Sheaves must be free to rotate with no visible
deformation, wear or cracks that would
damage the rope.
4. Remove from service if sheaves are not
functioning properly or meet rejection critieria. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The safe procedures for


securing and using the crane
when perfoming maintenance,
inspection or service.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Whenever we perform any preventive maintenance or repairs on our overhead
cranes we must follow the recommended procedures by the crane
manufacturer and/or the industry for safely securing the crane prior to working
on it.
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6. Place warning signs, barriers on
1. Only designated persons work on
floor under the crane.
our cranes.
7. Jse spotter for active cranes in
2. Land, remove load or rigging.
area.
3. Move crane to designated area.
8. Prevent contact with active cranes.
4. All controllers in neutral or off.
9. Remove loose material,
5. Follow lock-out, tag-out procedure. maintenance equipment, install
guards and reactivate safety
devices before restoring for use.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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We only allow our trained maintenance staff to perform repairs or adjustments
on our overhead cranes. If you are assisting them in this repair, the follow rules
apply:

1. All conditions deemed as a hazard


will be repaired before use.
2. De-energize and lock-out the main
switch prior to repairs.
3. Repairs by maintenance staff only.
4. Function, instruction, caution and
warning labels or plates on
pendants or remotes must be kept
legible.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Part of the operator¶s responsibility is to continually watch and listen for signs
that components are not turning properly and may need lubrication.
Immediately report and visual or audible signs that the crane may be in need of
lubrication. Do not take chances, report the unusual crane noise!

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In the event the operator finds a
safety problem or hazardous
condition which affects the safe
option of an overhead crane, he/she
shall install a locked-out tag on the
machines on/off switch, even if there
is an existing locked-out tag on the
machine.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The rules and regulations for


attaching, elevating, moving
and placing a load with an
overhead crane.
‡ Lift planning to include
critical lifts and planned
engineered lifts.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Your mental concentration and attitude plays a very important part in operating
the overhead cranes at our facilities in a safe manner.
1. No horseplay, keep your focus.
2. Do not operate when unfit.
3. When safety is in question consult
with a supervisor.
4. Be familiar with your crane, report
any dangerous issues immediately.
5. Contact bridge or rails stops slowly.
6. Operate with care and safety of
others in mind.
7. Respect all lock-outs and tag-outs.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Do not exceed the rating of the


(1) crane, (2) hook, (3) wire or chain,
or (4) rigging being used.
2. Move the block with minimal swing.
3. Ensure rope is not kinked, never
wrap hoist rope around the load.
4. Verify rope is properly seated in
sheaves and on drum.
5. Ensure load is attached properly with
slings or other approved engineered
devices.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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1. Avoid carrying loads over people.
2. Conduct a dry run first where
clearance is limited.
3. Avoid collisions.
4. Verify personnel are clear prior to
lifting or moving the load.
5. Ensure load is secure and balanced
before lifting more than a few inches.
6. Lift slowly until load clears ground.
7. Never suddenly accelerate or
decelerate with a moving load.
8. Never use the crane for side pulls
unless authorized to do so. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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9. Do not lift, lower or travel while
someone is on the load or hook.
10. Check your hoist brake occasionally.
Any slippage is unacceptable.
11. Sound a warning when your hook or
load approaches personnel.
12. Jse tag lines as necessary.
13. Diagonal movement across an area is
best accomplished by simultaneously
moving both the bridge and the trolley.
´Rough´ crane travel may be a sign of a broken wheel, flat spot on track,
misaligned track or foreign objects on the track or rail. Report rough crane travel
to the appropriate maintenance personnel.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

+!3'+
1. Never leave a load suspended.
2. When leaving the crane, position the
block high out of reach and out of any
main path of travel.
3. Never allow the crane to coast to a
stop, use plugging (control reversal) or
the braking system to stop (loaded or
unloaded).

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Avoid sudden stops as the load may swing outward and possibly could injure
others. Sudden stops also will result in uneven wear on the wheels.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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It is vital that both the signaler and the operator completely understand the task
that is being asked of them. There can be no room for miscommunication.

1. Jse only approve signals to


avoid confusion.
2. Communicate any special
signal requirements in
advance.
3. Follow signals from one
person, except the stop signal
which you will obey from any
person.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

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Our overhead crane lifts can be divided into two types, they are:
1. Repetitive or Simple Lift (the majority of our lifts)
2. Critical or Engineered Lift

Plan specifics will change based on


your load weight, environment,
capacity of rigging and crane,
complexity of lift or nature of the lift.
Critical or Engineered Lifts will require
more than just a mental review of the
safe operating procedures for
overhead lifting.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

.!!"'&.)(!#
These are the bulk of our lifts. The same lift(s) are done by a particular crane
over and over, load weight is well within the cranes and rigging ratings, no
unforeseen hazards to account for, no documentation or approval is required.
A mental review of the lift is required by the operator.

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^-
Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

! )'+(!
Due to the nature of the lift it must be  %!)/.)+, to include a 5!!
)(!.)..'"+/%."#'' prior to the lift actually taking
place.
1. Lifting personnel. ASME B30.2 rules.
2. Jsing two cranes on the same load.
3. Leaving the load elevated for an
extended period of time.
4. Hoisting a costly or critical item.
5. Exceeding 75% of the cranes rated
capacity.
6. Engineering a lift which exceeds the
cranes rated capacity. ASME B30.2
rules.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

 !"# # 


Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ General safe use of basic rigging


hardware.
‡ How angle loading affects rating.
‡ How to perform the daily inspection and
understand the rejection criteria for
hardware.
‡ The general safe use of slings.
‡ How horizontal sling angle affects rated
capacity of slings.
‡ How to inspect the slings and
understand the rejection criteria.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

(î'1'+î
Every piece of hardware that we use for overhead lifting has a rated capacity.
Here are a few basic rules about theses ratings.

1. Maximum allowed, do not exceed rating.


2. Referred to as SWL, WLL, MWL or MLL
3. Identified on each piece of rigging.
4. Rated for in-line loading.
5. Side or angle loading will reduce
capacity rating.

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+!( !'
Since the hardware we use all has rated load limits, we must ensure that the
components we select will handle the load weight we are imposing on it.
You must verify the rating by the identification markings prior to using the
hardware or sling.

1. All rigging shall have the rated capacity


noted on it. (you need to know what the
rating is).
2. Some specific hardware (eyebolts and
master links) will have only the size
denoted on it. You will have to refer to
rating charts and mfr information.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training


+!( !'
Note: If any piece of rigging or hardware does not have the SWL or WLL
legibly marked on it, you cannot verify the rated capacity.

It must be removed from service and:

1. Retagged with the appropriate SWL


noted on it.
2. Retested if the SWL is not known and
retagged with SWL immediately after
testing by the testing agency.
3. Removed from service and destroyed if
SWL cannot be found or attached.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

+5 # #
All rigging must be visually inspected prior to use to verify it has not met or
exceeded the rejection criteria. Here are some basic rigging rules and the
rejection criteria for the basic hardware and slings.

3 1)#
1. Pull in-line for 100% rated WLL.
@ 45ù you have 70% of WLL
@ 90Û you have 50% of WLL
2. Visually inspect prior to use.
* Full thread engagement of pin
* Ears not pulled open
* Excessive wear
* Markings and ratings
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3 1)#

 

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)# # #
1. Inspect prior to use.
2. Type of Hitch can affect rated capacity.
3. Horizontal sling angle affects load rating.
4. All require legible sling tags (ASME B30.9)
5. Some environments can damage slings.
6. Do not make sling eyes with knots.
7. Never exceed the rating.
8. Never shorten or lengthen by knotting.
9. Damaged slings shall not be used.
10. Jse the proper hitch for control, rig to center of gravity.
11. Store them properly when not in use.
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î'.) !'!
m4 '1î#: 5 broken wires in one strand or 10 broken wires in all
strands in one rope lay.
4 !)'##: one third the original diameter of outside individual wires.
j4 #!'!': Kinking, crushing, bird caging or other damage which distorts
the rope.
{4 !+&: Metallic discoloration or loss of internal lubricant.
4 ++!! 3&!#: Cracked, bent or broken fittings.
^4 !''1#: 15 percent throat opening or more, or twisting of more than
10 degrees.
r4 !) ''#': Severe corrosion of the rope or end attachments, pitting
or binding of wires. Light rust usually does not affect sling strength.
Œ4 ##')))#)+!( !' (ASME B30.9).
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

î'.) !'!


Identify the applicable hook rejection criteria for the pictures above.
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3) !'!

1. Wear, nicks, cracks, breaks,


gouges, stretch, bends, weld
splatter, discoloration from
excessive temperature.
2. Links and attachments should
hinge freely.
3. Latches on hook should hinge
freely and seat properly without
evidence of permanent
distortion.
4. Missing or illegible sling ID tag.

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/!3! ) !'!


1. Acid or caustic burns.
2. Melting or charring of any part of the
sling.
3. Holes, tears, cuts or snags.
4. Broken or worn stitching in splices.
5. Excessive abrasive wear.
6. Knots in any part of the sling.
7. Excessive pitting or corrosion, or
cracked, distorted or broken fittings.
8. Other visible damage that caused doubt
as to the strength of the sling.
9. Missing sling tags (ASME B30.9)
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# )! 3/.#

8 8 


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# )! 3#

Pro¶s Con¶s
3'1 Good load control 75% capacity of vertical
Easy to apply Difficult to remove
Versatile for shapes 60° minimum angle of choke

#1! Twice rated capacity Poor load control


Easy to apply Requires twice the length

+) Good load control Load isn't always shared


Easy to apply Must use hardware
Jsed down to 30° Must calculate sling angle stress

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!3!3#!' '#+53%##)#

1. Wire rope should never be bent around any object equal to or less than
it¶s own diameter. When this occurs this ´D/d ratio´ or curvature of the
rope affects the rated capacity of the wire rope. Most slings are rated at
a 25:1 curve ratio (1/2´ sling curved around a 12´ load)
2. Various sling materials may grip various load materials differently. Be
sure your sling selected grips your load material well.
3. Soften edges of objects when using any type of sling. All slings can be
affected by sharp edges and abrupt corners.

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)3!#
To understand the correct reductions for the various hitches it is important that
you understand the basic components of a sling chart.

m  j {  ^ r m

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

'2'!)))
Horizontal angle is the angle created between the load and the sling leg.
Both the Basket Hitch and the Bridle Hitch create horizontal sling angles.
There are a few basic rules to follow when selecting your slings and
considering the horizontal angles.

1. You must take that angle into account when selecting your sling and
hardware.
2. Sling and hardware have to work harder when the horizontal angle is
below 90 degrees.
3. The lower the angle, the greater the stress on the sling.
4. 30° is the recommended minimum horizontal sling angle.

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Sling Angle Increase due to Total Sling
sling stress Stress
'2'!)))

-0: ;0< m000)#


'2'!)
85° +.4% 1004 lbs
))
80° +1.5% 1015 lbs
75° +3.5% 1035 lbs
70° +6.4 1064 lbs
^: ;m04{< mm0{)#
60° +15.5% 1155 lbs
55° +22.1% 1221 lbs
50° +30.5% 1305 lbs
{: ;{m4{< m{m{)#
40° +55.5% 1555 lbs
35° +74.2% 1742 lbs
j0: ;m00< 000)#
25° +136.4% 2364 lbs
20° +192.4% 2924 lbs
15° +286.1% 3861 lbs
m0: ;{r{4r< r{r)#

5°Developed by  +1049% 10490


 Safety Training, Inc. lbs
Œr
Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

 !"#  


Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ Types of magnets used in


overhead lifting;
‡ Daily preoperational
inspection requirements and
rejection criteria;
‡ Application of lifting magnets
when lifting;
‡ Failure factors and how to
avoid them.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!#
Magnets used as a below the hook lifting device on overhead cranes at our
facility come in two basic types.

/.m )'#'7&!/.!+!#These must be manually


positioned on the load and manually guided during the lift.

m4 !!/.'5+: Requires continuous current from


a battery to maintain holding force.
4 ) ! ))/ '!'))+: Contains permanent
magnet material that requires current only for
attachment and release of the load.
j4 %))/ '!'))+: Contains permanent magnet
material and requires a manual effort during
attachment or release of the load.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!#

/. &'!.!+!#These do not require the operator or


other person to be in close proximity while using the magnet.

These types of magnets are not broken


down into any particular classifications but
can come in different shapes and sizes
according to task requirements.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

(!/!++#
While magnets are an integral part of handling our materials as we do in many
areas of our facility, there are some basic safety facts you should know about
the design, use, inspection and care of the magnet to ensure safe and proper
application.


+!( !'
All magnets at our facility have ID tags
embossed or attached to them.

These tags will show:


1. Manufacturers¶ name and address
2. Model or identification number
3. Magnet weight and Duty cycle
4. Primary supply voltage
5. Load rating & Legible safety labels
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

%!// )
Put very simply, the duty cycle is the amount of time the magnet is energized
vs the amount of time it is de-energized in an average time period.
So a 75% duty rating would mean for every 45 seconds it is on, it will be
de-energized for at least 15 seconds or a 3:1 ratio.

1. Your magnet should have the duty cycle


rating clearly marked on it
2. Exceeding the duty rating cycle could
potentially cause the magnet to lose
power or grip on the load

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

(!/)#
All of our magnets have safety caution labels affixed or attached.
You must follow the information provided on this label.
Typically these labels say, 6
1. Exceed capacity rating or alter
2. Exceed duty cycle rating
3. Operate if damaged or missing parts
4. Lift people or lift loads over people
5. Remove or obscure warning labels
6. Operate without first understanding the manual
7. Position yourself under suspended loads
8. Lift loads higher than necessary to clear
obstacles.
9. Disconnect magnet with power on
10. Lift without the control handle latch fully in the ´lift´
position (manual type)
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!!%#)
Many of our Cab operated cranes have a magnet status panel in the cab next
to or behind the operator. A #&.).) might include:
1. Voltmeter: Indicates voltage on the buss system, (not
battery).
2. Ammeter: Indicates flow to and from the batteries only.
Needle pointing right indicates charging (current flowing to the
batteries to charge). Needle pointing left indicates draining
(current flowing to the magnets). Needle in the middle indicates
ready, fully charged batteries.
3. Magnet on Batteries Light: Indicates backup batteries are
supplying power to magnet on the load.
Set down load immediately.
4. Rapid Charge Light: Indicates the batteries do not have a
sufficient charge to operate properly and are being quick
charged. Do not operate until this light is off.
5. Horn Reset: Disables the horn when the loss of power results
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

#%)!
#. !'
All magnets are required to undergo a visual check prior to using them for the
shift. Jtilize the inspection checklist provided by your department.
You will be asked to check:
1. Surface face is clear of foreign
materials.
2. All control handles (manual type).
3. Visible electrical conductors for loose
connections, corrosion, insulation
damage.
4. All wires and connectors.
5. Indicators and/or meters. (manual)
6. Housing for cracks, bad welds, and
loose bolts.
7. All labels and markings for legibility.
8. Al attachments, hardware, slings and
hooks. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

&!%*)%
Magnets fail or lose the ability to hold onto the load for these reasons.

m4 7 ##"+%!/ / )Magnet is energized too long with not enough


de-energized time.
4 7!)!Either by the heat of the material being hoisted or by the
external ambient temperature in the immediate area. Allow for adequate
time for the magnet to dissipate the heat.
j4 3'!+' '%++')#Insulating shorts in coil create hot spots
adding additional heat to the coil. The magnet can also be grounded by
excessive moisture causing the coil to heat up.
{4 .#&!Without full contact with the load (foreign
substance on magnet) the load may fall. Load surface must be free of
debris. Always ensure maximum magnet contact with the load. Remember
that too long of a load can ´peel off´ the magnet. Be sure to spread and
position magnets accordingly.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!#+î!
Moisture and water can dramatically effect the magnets¶ ability to hold.
As an operator you must observe the following safety rules with regards to
moisture and water when using magnets:

1. Check the case, welds, bottom


plate, center pole for cracks
where moisture could enter.
2. Keep magnets away from
water.
3. Do not dip or spray magnets
with water to cool them.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!! 3!3'+
1. Only use for designed tasks.
2. Follow the manufacturer¶s instructions.
3. Distribute the load weight evenly.
4. Contact area is clean of debris and the
magnet has full contact with the load.
5. Do not prematurely energize the magnet.
6. Lift the load only a few inches and verify the
load is secure.
7. Ensure any input control should be switched
to ´full on´ or ´full power´ and remain in that
position until the load is ready to be removed
from the magnet.
8. Continually check the battery indicators
during use.
9. Prior to hoisting, audibly warn all personnel
near the lift.
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(!

1. Center the load.


2. When using two magnets and one is off
center or too low, set down load and
reposition.
3. Energize magnets while on the load.
4. Lift straight up and keep load away from
cab.
5. Travel load as low as possible to clear
obstacles.
6. Do not carry loads over people.
7. Center load over target set down area.
8. Do not leave any load suspended by a
magnet unattended.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!'5

1. Position squarely and completely


lower load into the desired area.
2. When the load is down, de-energize
magnets.
3. Pause and wait for the magnets to
de-energize (may take a moment).
4. Lift straight up using the hoist control.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!'

1. Store (if removed) in a dry location


clear of potential contact with other
items.
2. Separate magnets when storing, do
not stack.
3. Do not store them directly on the
ground, set them on wooden pallets
or blocks.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

'5'##
In the event of a loss of power to the magnets or crane while operating the
these steps must be followed:

1. Immediately, get all ground


personnel or vehicles out of the way.
2. Try to set the load down (if able.
3. Secure area, prevent personnel
entrance, alert supervisor.
4. Do not use equipment again until
properly repaired and tested.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

+) .!)
Some of our cranes are used to handle scrap metals. This may involve loading
and unloading of trailers and railcars. There are specific rules for each
department in this regard. 6Ú  hoisting cables or magnet lines
when loading or unloading.
Listed below are some general safety rules for scrap material handling.
)'+% 1#')#
1. Truck driver must not be in the cab, make sure
he/she is clear.
2. Position magnet in the bed taking care not to
damage the sides of the bed of the truck.
3. Jse your horn to alert driver when it is safe to
return to his/her truck cab.
)'+) #
1. Empty railcars at the ends first and then move to the middle. Jneven
loading or unloading can result in the pin of the railcar to fall out.
Reinstalling the pin can put fellow workers at risk. Developed by   Safety Training, Inc.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

+)('!((

It would now be safe to


approach the magnet and the
load.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

 !"# 


Jpon successful completion of this Section you will understand:

‡ The additional hazards of operating an


overhead crane in this environment.
‡ The additional personal protective
equipment that may be required.
‡ How your use of the crane may affect the
safety of other workers.

There will be additional area and crane specific


training required in addition to this core safety
training. This will include rules and procedures,
operating techniques and skill-sets, and a more
in-depth explaination of the actual processes at
work.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

++!')2+
Since the work with hot metal usually involves temperatures of around 3000
degrees F, it is imperative that you understand all of the company procedures
prior to operating in this environment.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

.!'=%)( !'
Due to the specific nature of this equipment and the extreme hazards
associated with its operation, this equipment can be operated only by specially
trained, qualified and designated persons.
. )2+#3)) )%+
1. Actual use of crane itself.
2. Performance related tasks.
3. All special procedures and cautions.
4. Manufacturer¶s procedures.
5. Required condition of loads.
6. Storage, shutdown.
7. Limits and capacities.
8. Indicators, meters and alarms.
Operator must demonstrate ability to operate the
hot metal bucket or ladle as prescribed by the
company procedures and the operator¶s manuals.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

#')'! !"$%.&!
Additional Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is required for operating in this
type of environment (extreme heat). Requirements may vary by job and task in
this environment. The following list is provided as a guideline for training, but
operators are to follow their individual departmental policy and procedures.

++!')&'! '!') #


‡ All standard PPE items 
‡ High Heat version of Hard Hat
‡ Cotton Mill Gloves
‡ Hot Coat (by task)
‡ Hat Flap (by task)
‡ Hot Pants (by task)
‡ Face shield (by task)
‡ Dust mask (by task)
‡ Anti-vibration gloves (by task)

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

++!')*!%#
Our hot metal crane cabs have been fitted with additional safety features
including:

1. Totally enclosed for outdoor protection.


2. Have windows, metal sash and
heat-resistant glazing material.
3. Floor has been insulated with heat
resistant material.
4. A metal shield has been installed
below the cab floor.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

%7)/' '+/'#!
Because our hot metal crane tasks require the use of both the main and the
auxiliary (OX) hoist the operator must understand the dangers of running both
load hoists in tandem and be adept at this task.

1. Jnderstand the limitations of the


auxiliary hoist.
2. Jnderstand that many tasks will require
simultaneous use of both hoists.
3. Jnderstand that use of one hoist may
effect the cable or chain of the other.
4. Watch out for hoisted material coming
in contact with the auxiliary lifting line
or vice-versa.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

!! 3+'"!3'+
This is a very specialized task and a specific skill set is required by our
operators. Due to the special nature of the lifts, the operating procedures will
be very site and crane specific.

1. Follow all attachment and hoisting rules


as previously covered in the load
handling section of the overhead crane
operator training program. P
2. Any and all department safety rules
and work related procedures for hot
metal work.
.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training


#. !''( % 1!#'+)#
Divided into two intervals or types of inspections. Done by a quailfied person.

*$%!#. !'
Performed as per duty rating.
May be daily to weekly.

'+ #. !'


Indepth inspection performed as per
mfr¶s requirements.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

*$%!
#. !'
Both the manufacturer and our company policy and procedure outlines the
visual examination criteria for these cranes in this working environment.
Employees with specialized training perform the inspections on these cranes
and all below the hook lifting devices which are utilized as per the duty rating
schedule. These types of inspection may include but are not limited to:

1. Visual check per the dept checklist.


2. Special attention to the hoisting cable.
3. Check all attachment points.
4. Check ladle and/or bucket.
5. Verify no components show signs of
potential failure or hazard.
.

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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

(!/'('!3î'1#
As a qualified operator, you must understand your actions have the potential to
greatly affect the personnel on the floor of the facility, potentially damage
equipment and cause equipment down time or repair due to impact or misuse.
1. Communication must be
maintained.
2. No misunderstanding or
miscommunication.
3. Perform your crane movements,
hoisting or other tasks only when
signaled that it is safe.
4. Do not allow non-essential
personnel inside your danger
zone.
5. Be constantly aware and keep a
keen eye on all movements of
your load and surrounding area.
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Overhead Crane Operator Safety Training

is firmly committed to provide you with the necessary


training, materials and processes to become proficient at your job and skill
set. Thank you for your undivided attention today during this training
program.

Today¶s classroom training portion of our operator training and


qualification program is now completed.

The next step in our four step process is the verification


of comprehension of the curriculum we just covered
by passing a written exam.

Please carefully tear out the last page in your student handbooks,
I will pass out the written exam questions.

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mm