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4
1. Introduction
2. Composite Materials
3. Phases of Composites
4. Classification of Composites
5. Fiber Reinforced Plastics
6. Applications of GFRP Composites
7. Ultrasonic Machining
8. Process Parameter in USM
9. Advantages & Limitations of USM
10. Grey Fuzzy Logic
11. Literature Review
12. Machining of composites
13. USM as an alternative
14. Gaps in the Literature
15. Objective
16. Issues
17. Methodology
18. Phases of Research
19. Activity Schedule
20. References 44 4 4
Int ti n
 Advanced engineering materials such as polymers, ceramics,
composites, and superalloys play an ever increasing important role in
modern manufacturing industries, especially, in aircraft, automobile,
cutting tools, die and mold making industries.
 Higher costs are associated with machining of these materials.
 Unconventional machining processes have been developed in response
to new and challenging machining requirements.
 Generally these processes are characterized by low value of material
removal rate (MRR) and high power consumption.
 Therefore effective, efficient, and economic utilization of capabilities of
these processes necessitates selection of optimum process parameters.

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 
itti 
 A composite material is a combination of two or more chemically
distinct and insoluble phases; its properties and structural performance
are superior to those of the constituents acting independently .
 Composite materials have found increasingly wider applications in
aircraft, space vehicles, offshore structures, piping, electronics,
automobiles, boats and sporting goods.
 The word composite in the term composite material signifies that two
or more materials are combined on a macroscopic scale to form a useful
third material. The key is the macroscopic examination of a material
wherein the components can be identified by the naked eye.

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p   
it
  01ü The primary phase, having a
continuous character, is called matrix. Matrix is
usually more ductile and less hard phase. It holds the
dispersed phase and shares a load with it.
  & 21| 31,4The second
phase (or phases) is imbedded in the matrix in a
discontinuous form. This secondary phase is called
dispersed phase. Dispersed phase is usually stronger
than the matrix, therefore it is sometimes called
reinforcing phase.

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 iiti n  
it
ù  2"3& 0ü
1) Polymer matrix composites (Reinforced plastics)
2) Metal matrix composites
3) Ceramic matrix composites
4) Carbon-Carbon composites
ù  22"& &ü
1) Particulate composites
2) Flake composites
3) Fiber composites

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aibin  p ti
 Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) consists of fibers in a plastic matrix.
Commonly used fibers are glass, graphite, aramids and boron. These
fibers are strong and stiff and they have high specific strength and
specific stiffness. However, they are brittle and abrasive, lack toughness
and can degrade chemically exposed to atmosphere. On the other hand,
plastic matrix is less strong and stiff but it is tougher than fibers. The
percentage of fibers (by volume) in reinforced plastics usually ranges
between 10% and 60%. When more than one type of fiber is used in
reinforced plastic, the composite is called hybrid which have better
properties but are more costly.

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?

iti n ap 


it

# 
åathtubs, shower stalls and floors, hot tubs, spas, sinks, pipes, building panels, swimming pools, floor
grating, doors, satellite dishes
  
Ski boats, fishing boats, sail boats, yachts, personal water craft

 
Tanks, processing vessels, pipes, fans, pollution control equipment, scrubbers
 3 
Automobile body panels and structural components, truck hoods and caps, trailer sidewalls, RV
sidewalls, train seating

#
Sporting goods, hobby castings, decorative art
  
Appliance housings, circuit boards, insulating boards.

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2 t ni ining
 Ultrasonic machining is a non
traditional machining process. It
uses water based abrasive slurry
which is flooded in machining
zone, to remove the material from
the work piece. A tool of desired
shape vibrates at an ultrasonic
frequency (19-25 KHz) and
amplitude of 15-50 microns over
the work piece. Generally the tool
is pressed downward with a feed
force. As tool vibrates over the
workpiece, the abrasive particles
act as indenters and indent both the
work piece and the tool. Due to this
indentation and subsequent crack
initiation, propagation and brittle
fracture the material is removed
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from the work piece.
p ptin2 
 ?bivti
 ?biviz
 ?
it 
 a n
 a  
  nntti n bivint 
  ti

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? vntg 2 
ù åoth conductive and non conductive materials can be machined.
ù The process does not produce a heat affected zone.
ù USM is suitable to precise machining of brittle materials.
ù Can drill circular or non-circular holes in very hard materials

uiitti n 2 


ùLow MRR
ùHigh Tool Wear
ùLow Depth of hole

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a zzu gi
 It is a method to optimize multiple performance
characteristics by combining grey relational analysis and
fuzzy logic.
 In grey relational analysis, experimental data are first
normalized between 0 and 1.
 Next, the grey relational coefficients are calculated from
the normalized data.
 Further, Fuzzy logic is used to fuzzify grey relational
coefficients and then transform them into a single grey
fuzzy reasoning grade.

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uitt vi bn ivi  int ivtg i

Cat-1ü xperimental investigations in ultrasonic machining


Cat-2ü Conventional machining of GFRP composites
Cat -3ü Modifications/hybridization of USM with other processes
Cat-4ü USM applied to machining of FRP composites
Cat-5ü Optimization using fuzzy logic technique

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t-1:
int invtigti nin2 
Singh R & Khamba J.S. (2008)
56
  ü Investigated the effect of different types of slurry and different tool
materials on MRR and TWR while drilling titanium and its alloy with
ultrasonic machine.
   ü Different types of slurry (Alumina, åoron carbide,
Silicon carbide), Different types of tools (Stainless steel, HSS and Titanium),
Power Ratings (150 W, 300 W, 450 W)
  ü
1. åest results were obtained using stainless steel tool and boron carbide slurry.
2. MRR and TWR increased with increase in the power rating of the machine.

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Kumar Jatinder et al. (2008)
56
  ü Investigated the effect process parameters on
MRR, Tool wear rate and surface roughness in ultrasonic
machining of titanium using different types of tool
materials.
   ü Tool Material (HCS & Ti alloy),
Grain size of slurry(220, 320, 500), Power rating
(100,200,200,400 W).

ü Full Factorial Design
  ü
1. For surface roughness, grit size of abrasive slurry was
the only significant factor.
2. All the three input parameters and two way interactions
were significant for MRR and tool wear rate.
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Gill S.S. & Singh J (2010)
56
  ü Conducted experimental study to model
MRR in ultrasonic drilling of sillimanite ceramic.
   ü Depth of penetration, Time of
penetration, Penetration rate

ü Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system
(ANFIS)
  ü
1. Results generated by the designed fuzzy model were
close to the experimental results with 96.55% accuracy.
2. Probability of the model to predict accurate results was
99.99 %.
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Kumar V. & Khamba J.S. (2009)
56
  ü Optimized process parameters for minimum tool wear
and maximum material removal rate in ultrasonic machining of
cobalt based super alloy stellite 6.
   ü Abrasive type, Abrasive size, concentration
of slurry, nature of tool material and power rating of machine.

ü Taguchi Method
  ü
1. Power rating, type of abrasive, slurry concentration significantly
affects the MRR.
2. Abrasive grit size and power rating significantly affects the surface
quality.
3. Tool material, slurry grit size and power rating significantly affects
the TWR.
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Guzzo P.L. et. al. (2004)
56
  ü Investigated the ultrasonic abrasion of different work
piece materials - alumina, zirconia, quartz, glass, ferrite and LiF ±
by using a stationary ultrasonic machine. xperiments were
conducted using a rectangular shaped cutting tool and SiC particles
with mean grain size of 15ȝm. The machined surfaces were
characterized by surface profilometry and scanning electron
microscopy.
  ü
1. It was concluded that in the case of alumina, zirconia and quartz,
the rates of material removal decrease with the depth of machining.
The rate of material removal remained constant for the others
materials.
2. The micrographs showed that brittle microcracking was the
primary mechanism involved with material removal.
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 wuist and Schreiber (1996) investigated the material removal rate in
ultrasonic machining of several different ceramic materials. Results showed
that for tougher work materials, the MRR observed was quite low as
compared to the hard and brittle materials. However, the surface quality
obtained (in terms of finish) was found to be superior for tough materials.
 Jianxin and Taichiu (2002) investigated the effect of properties and
microstructure of work material on MRR in USM of alumina based
ceramic composites. MRR was reported to be low while machining
composites of higher fracture toughness such as whisker-reinforced
composites. The particle reinforced composites yielded higher values of
MRR on account of their low fracture toughness.

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t-2: nvnti n  ining ap 
it

Latha å et. al. (2009)


56
  ü Formulated a fuzzy rule based model to predict the thrust force in
drilling of Glass Fibre reinforced Plastic Composites.
   ü Spindle speed, feed rate, Drill diameter

ü Fuzzy logic
  ü
1. Verification results revealed that fuzzy rule based model is better than response
surface model for predicting thrust force in machining of GFRP composites.
2. Feed rate and drill diameter are the factors that influence the thrust force in
GFRP composites. Spindle speed shows only very limited effect on thrust
force.

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K. Palanikumar et. al. (2006)
56
  ü Optimized machining parameters in turning
GFRP composites using a carbide tool

   ü Cutting speed, feed rate, depth of


cut, machining time and fiber orientation


ü Taguchi method with fuzzy logic

  ü
1. Fiber orientation and machining time were the
parameters that showed higher influence on machining of
GFRP composites
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t-3: iiti nbi izti n 2 it  t 
 
Li Z.C. et. al. (2005)
56
  ü Studied the feasibility of machining ceramic matrix composites
on rotary ultrasonic machine (RUM).
   ü Spindle speed, Feed rate and ultrasonic power
   5 ü Cutting force, Material removal rate and hole
quality

ü Three level full factorial design
  ü
1. It was observed that feed rate has the most significant effect on cutting
force.
2. All the three input process parameters have significant effects on MRR.
3. Spindle speed, feed rate and their interaction significantly effect hole
quality

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t-4:2 

i t  ining ap 


it

Hocheng H and Hsu C.C (1995)


OåJ CTIV ü Conducted a preliminary study on ultrasonic
machining of Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics.
INPUT PARAM T RSü Slurry concentration, Abrasive size, feed
rate, electric current
APPROACHü Taguchi method
R SULTSü
1. Grain size, electric current, slurry concentrations were main
factors affecting surface roughness.
2. No delamination occurs at the hole edge.
3. Ultrasonic machining can earn higher profit than other non
conventional machining.

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t-5:
tiizti n inga zzu gi
Lin J.L. & Lin C.L.(2005)
56
  ü Applied fuzzy logic based on orthogonal array for
optimizing the machining parameters in lectric Discharge Machining
( DM) with multiple process responses.
   ü Pulse on time, Duty factor, Discharge current
   5 ü lectrode wear ratio, MRR, Surface
Roughness
  ü
Fuzzy was used to perform a fuzzy reasoning of the multiple
performance characteristics. Results showed that grey fuzzy logic
approach can be effectively used for optimizing multiple response
parameters.

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Tzeng et al. (2007)
56
  ü Optimized process parameters in
high speed electrical discharge machining of alloy
steel

ü Taguchi method with Fuzzy logic
  ü Duty cycle, peak
current, powder size, powder concentration, pulsed
duration, open circuit voltage, time interval for
electrode lift

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 ining  
it
Following facts about machining of composites have been observed in the
literature.
 Although in many applications, composites are cured to final shape, machining
can be required at product stage.
 As the application fields of FRP composites expands, the opportunity of
machining has increased for its fabrication.
 The mechanism behind the machining of FRP composites is quite different
from that of metals and it brings about many undesirable results such as rapid
tool wear, rough surface finishes and a defective sub surface layer with cracks
and delamination.
 Most composites are very poor thermal conductors. During machining, heat can
build up at the cutting edge of the tool.
 In traditional drilling, due to anisotropy and the lamination of composite
materials, delamination and splintering at hole edge often ocuurs*

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2 n tntiv
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nt   ti  v b  biv*
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ig 
 it t n t  n n  nvnti n  ining

  in  ti 
 ti n
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 ining*
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int uitt 
 It is found from the literature that little work has been done on
ultrasonic machining of composites.
 In fact, no work was found related to the ultrasonic drilling of GFRP
composites.
 No research work has been reported related to application of grey fuzzy
logic optimization technique in ultrasonic machining, till date.
 Conventional processes are still used for machining of composites but
the capability of non conventional machining is yet to be explored to
address certain issues like surface quality and productivity.
 Microstructure aspects of the machined FRP composites samples such
as surface topography are still to be properly investigated to assess the
extent of damage after machining.

44 4 4
bjtiv
 The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of
slurry type, slurry concentration, abrasive size and
power rating of the ultrasonic machine on the material
removal rate, tool wear rate and surface roughness of
the machined surface and to model these process
parameters involved in the ultrasonic machining
process

44 4 4
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    nntti n biv iz n
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u?I?u ?uu u
p ?I?u u2NN?IN?? I
IZpa u2p ?IN
a2 
 pN ?I?u ?I?u?u?u
?? 2a?2N 
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44 4 4
 nt !**

xperiments will be planned according to


orthogonal array and the results of the runs will be
analyzed using ANOVA to study the effect of input
parameters on response variables. Grey fuzzy logic
technique will be used to optimize the machining
parameters for maximum material removal rate,
minimum tool wear rate and the minimum surface
roughness. The results obtained shall be modeled
for their application in manufacturing industry.

44 4 4
p  
uitt vi

pi t
int

ign 

int


intti n
n  t ti n

?n i  t

  ing 
 t

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?tivit   

Jan-March April-Dec 2011 Jan-July Aug- Dec Jan- July Aug- Dec Jan- June
2012 2012 2013 2013 2014
2011

Purchase of
materials

Pilot
experimentation &
set up

Machining & Data


Collection

Analysis , Modeling
and confirmation of
results

Compilation and
report writing

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n

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