TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF DATA COLLECTION

Shilpi Mishra Sharma, PGDHM 14th Bathch, 2010, IIHMR, Jaipur

TYPE OF RESEARCH METHODS TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Quantitative Qualitative

Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

Qualitative Methods

Quantitative Methods

Provide depth of understanding Ask why?

Measure level of confidence Ask "How many ?" "How often ?³

Study motivations/intentions/reasons Study action/manifested behaviour Are subjective Enable discovery Are exploratory Allow insight into behaviour trends and so on Interpret Are objective Provide proof Are definite Measure level of actions, trends and so on Describe

QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Focus Group Discussions Participant Observation Key Informant Interviews Case Studies Projective Techniques .

Participatory Mapping Seasonal Calendar Venn/Institutional Diagram Pie Chart/ Histogram Daily Routine Diagram Flow/causal Diagram Time Trends .PARTICIPATORY RAPID TECHNIQUES Mapping. Social Mapping. Body Mapping.

QUANTITATIVE METHODS Methods of Survey/ information collection Tool .Questionnaire/ Interview Schedule .

METHODS OF SURVEY/ INFORMATION COLLECTION Self Administered Postal y Electronic y Advantage .More useful in sensitive issues Disadvantage .Dropout or non-response is much higher .

Survey participants can choose to remain anonymous. It is not labour intensive.POSTAL This method has a low cost. .SELF ADMINISTERED .

ELECTRONIC This method has a low cost.SELF ADMINISTERED . Questionnaires can be conducted swiftly. Sample may "self select" and thus not be representative of the population. It is not labour intensive. as opposed to the limits of paper or telephones. Questions can be more detailed. . and on most surveys costs nothing for the participants and little for the surveyors. This method works well if your survey contains several branching questions. Survey participants can choose to remain anonymous.

INTERVIEW .METHODS OF SURVEY/ INFORMATION COLLECTION .

TELEPHONE Questionnaires can be conducted swiftly.e. Rapport with respondents High response rate Be careful that your sampling frame (i.INTERVIEW .if you select the phone numbers from a phone book. where you get the phone numbers from) doesn't skew your sample. you are necessarily excluding people who only have a mobile phone.. those who requested an unpublished phone number. and individuals who have recently moved to the area because none of these people will be in the book. . y For example .

PERSONALLY ADMINISTERED ² FACE TO FACE INTERVIEW Questions can be more detailed. a statistical) sample so you cannot generalize your results. Rapport with respondents High response rate Usually a convenience (vs. as opposed to the limits of paper or telephones. .

TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Highly Structured Open Ended The in-depth interview .

TYPES OF QUESTIONS Contingency questions . This avoids asking questions of people that do not apply to them .A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question.

semantic differential scale. Most scales are closed ended. with 10 being the most preferred appearance).TYPES OF QUESTIONS Closed ended questions . Other types of closed ended questions include: Yes/no questions .Respondents· answers are limited to a fixed set of responses.The respondent has several option from which to choose. y Multiple choice . y Scaled questions .Responses are graded on a continuum (example : rate the appearance of the product on a scale from 1 to 10. Examples of types of scales include the Likert scale.The respondent answers with a ´yesµ or a ´noµ. and rank-order scale y .

ADVANTAGES OF CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS Time saving Easy comparison of responses of different groups y Same group over different period of time y .

RISK OF CLOSED QUESTIONS Possible answers might be disclosed to the respondents ² might introduce bias .

EXAMPLES OF CLOSED-ENDED QUESTIONS Do you get along with your supervisor? Is that a photograph of your children? Are you leaving right at 5:00 today? Are you awake? .

Respondents explain a picture or make up a story about what they think is happening in the picture .Respondents fill in an empty conversation balloon.TYPES OF QUESTIONS Open ended questions . For example. Examples of types of open ended questions include: y y y y y y Completely unstructured . . Thematic apperception test .No options or predefined categories are suggested.For example.Words are presented and the respondent mentions the first word that comes to mind. ´The most important consideration in my decision to buy a new house is . The respondent supplies their own answer without being constrained by a fixed set of possible responses. .µ Story completion . ´What is your opinion of questionnaires?µ Word association .Respondents complete an incomplete sentence. Sentence completion .Respondents complete an incomplete story. Picture completion .

ADVANTAGES OF COMPLETELY OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS Allows to probe more deeply New issues might be explored Information provided might be useful as an example Possibility of different interpretations .

RISK OF OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS Focus might be loosed Less information might be collected Analysis ² time consuming .

PARTIALLY CATEGORIZED QUESTIONS If one has ´othersµ category Advantages Quick recoding of answers y Easy analysis y Risks y y y y y Loss of a lot of interesting and valuable information Interviews might try to get the response from the categories Interviewer might only receive one answer Interviewer might introduce the possible answer Very little space provided for recording the response .

EXAMPLES OF OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS Tell me about your relationship with your supervisor. How do you see your future? Tell me about the children in this photograph. What is the purpose of government? Why did you choose that answer? .

Then in the second stage you ask all the product specific questions.QUESTION SEQUENCE Questions should flow logically from one to the next. Questions should flow from the least sensitive to the most sensitive. Questions should flow from unaided to aided questions. According to the three stage theory (also called the sandwich theory). initial questions should be screening and rapport questions. In the last stage you ask demographic questions . Questions should flow from the more general to the more specific. The researcher must ensure that the answer to a question is not influenced by previous questions. Questions should flow from factual and behavioural questions to attitudinal and opinion questions.

ART OF ASKING QUESTIONS Opening Remarks Establishing Rapport Neutrality of Interviewers Closing the interview General guidelines about interview .

y The research objectives and frame of reference should be defined beforehand. including the questionnaire's context of time. budget. don't bother doing the research. y for example. the results won't influence your decision or you can't afford to implement the findings or the cost of the research outweighs its usefulness. then save your time and money. manpower.QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Knowing about how (and whether) one will use the results of research before one start. . intrusion and privacy.

or standards of action. beliefs. facts. feelings. descriptions of past behavior. be it preferences (of products or services). Unneeded questions are an expense to the researcher .QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES The nature of the expected responses should be defined and retained for interpretation of the responses.

The level of measurement ² Important for Analysis The types of questions (closed. . multiple-choice. y Respondents should have enough information or expertise to answer the questions truthfully. open) should fit the statistical data analysis techniques available and your goals.QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES The topics should fit the respondents· frame of reference. Their background may affect their interpretation of the questions. y The type of scale or index to be used shall be determined.

Ambiguous words. Even questions without bias may leave respondents with expectations. The wording should be kept simple: no technical or specialized words. equivocal sentence structures and negatives may cause misunderstanding. Prior previous questions may bias later questions. . Double negatives should be reworded as positives.QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Questions and prepared responses to choose from should be neutral as to intended outcome. The order or ´naturalµ grouping of questions is often relevant. possibly invalidating questionnaire results. The meaning should be clear. A biased question or questionnaire encourages respondents to answer one way rather than another.

The list of possible responses should be collectively exhaustive. . y for example in both the ´marriedµ category and the ´singleµ category .there may be need for separate questions on marital status and living situation. y One might include ´otherµ specify---------------- The possible responses should also be mutually exclusive.QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Care should be taken to ask one question at a time.

QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Conversational writing style Sequencing of the questions Correct skipping pattern .

Clear. pictures. colors. detailed instructions for the interviewers . or other graphics may affect respondent's interest or distract from the questions. charts. Numbering of questions may be helpful.QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION ISSUES Presentation of the questions on the page (or computer screen) and use of white space.

trustworthiness and so forth. . When one meets people for the first time we try to build up a picture of them: we develop impressions of their friendliness. These impressions rarely rely on one piece of information but are a composite picture based on a number of clues.SCALING TECHNIQUES The basic principle of scaling is a part of everyday life. intelligence.

SCALING TECHNIQUES Differential Scales Summated Scales y Likert Scale .

(2) approve. (5) strongly disapprove. most scales currently used in social science research are Likert-type scales. (4) disapprove. In such a scale. (1) strongly approve. . In fact.LIKERT SCALE scale most frequently used in the study of attitudes follows the pattern devised by Rensis Likert (1932) and is referred to as a Likert type scale. (3) undecided. the respondents are asked to respond to each item in terms of several degrees of agreement or disagreement: for example.

Usually you would use a 1-to-5 rating scale where: = strongly unfavorable to the concept = somewhat unfavorable to the concept = undecided = somewhat favorable to the concept = strongly favorable to the concept . The next step is to have a group of judges rate the items.Rating the Items.

the respondent has to declare whether he/she is in agreement or disagreement with the item. I feel good about my work on the job. 5. I can tell that other people at work are glad to have me there. I get along well with others at work. 6. On the whole. Notice that this instrument has no center or neutral point -. INSTRUCTIONS: Please rate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements by placing a check mark in the appropriate box. I am proud of my ability to cope with difficulties at work. 8. I feel like I make a useful contribution at work. I can tell that my coworkers respect me. I am proud of my relationship with my supervisor at work.Example: The Employment Self Esteem Scale Here's an example of a ten-item Likert Scale that attempts to estimate the level of self esteem a person has on the job. . 9. 3. I am confident that I can handle my job without constant assistance. I know I'll be able to cope with work for as long as I want. 4. Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Disagree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Somewhat Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree 1. When I feel uncomfortable at work. 2. 7. I know how to handle it. 10.

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES .

FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (FGD) A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a group discussion of 6-12 persons guided by a facilitator. during which group members talk freely and spontaneously about a certain topic. FGDs are not used to test hypotheses or to produce research findings that can be generalized .

To supplement information on community knowledge. reasons for low women's participation in development programme can be understood by a focus group discussion among women. beliefs. For example.PURPOSE OF FGD 1.To generate new ideas. attitudes. A group works best to build on the ideas generated. 3. . 2. 5. 6.To focus research and develop relevant research hypotheses by exploring in greater depth the problem to be investigated and its possible causes.To formulate appropriate questions for more structured.To explore controversial topics. largescale surveys. 4.To develop appropriate messages for the education programme. and behaviour already available but are incomplete or unclear.

Key Features of the FGD Purpose  Research definition and  refinement Development of hypotheses Generation of vocabularies Formulation of questions for interview schedules Provision of supplementary information on community beliefs. time and place determined in advance  Process Discussion guidelines need to be pre-tested More than one focus group must be held Moderator and notetaker require training         . perceptions and attitudes  Composition Advance selection by random sampling or alternative criteria Homogeneous with respect to major social divisions Anonymity of participants Preferred Day.

tape recorded with supplementary notes Speak clearly. one at a time Want everyone's opinion .no right/wrong answers Role of Facilitator/Moderator  Facilitates but does not  dominate discussion Introduces new issues for discussion Monitors participant involvement and  interaction. time (start and finish) and place held Number and description of participants Major issues covered in focus group Group dynamics.supplements tape Back-up to moderator       Courage of conviction   . Community. including non.Participant Guidelines  Focus group runs 90 minutes. Maintaining focus but allowing  for flexibility Role of Notetaker/Recorder Maintains a written record of the focus group. including. including Speaker identity . encourages active participation  Keeps conversation flowing. date.verbal interaction Discussion details.

SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF FGD Preparation Recruitment of Participants y Physical Arrangements y Preparation of FGD Guideline y Conducting the session Moderator's Functions y Recorder's Functions y Number and Duration of Sessions .

where quality of data is so dependent on the moderator whose individual skills are central to the quality and quantity of the data obtained. y A major concern is the validity of conclusions from the focus group session. and to reduce sociallydesirable answers y The informal atmosphere of the group also should encourage participants to express views frankly and freely y chances of introducing error in focus group research is particularly high in cases where the interview is conducted in the indigenous language and then translated. y .SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF FOCUS GROUP ORGANIZATIONS Methodological Issues Appear to reduce the chance of questions being misunderstood by respondents.

PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION 1. it is not really a method at all. 2. PO gives you intuitive understanding of what is going on in a culture. It is a Strategy. PO helps you formulate sensible questions in the native language. 5. PO reduces the problem of reactivity among respondents. both quantitative and qualitative. and allows you to speak with confidence about the meaning of data. 4. Involves establishing rapport in a new community There are five reasons as to why Participant Observation (PO) should be insisted upon in the conduct of a scientific research about cultural group: PO is not a method of collecting just qualitative data. Lower reactivity means higher validity of data. 3. . Many research problems cannot be addressed adequately by anything except PO. which facilitates data collection in the field all kinds of data. In fact.

4. learning the native language Building explicit awareness Building memory Maintaining naivete Building writing skills 2. 5. 3. .IMPORTANT SKILLS REQUIRED TO BECOME AN EFFICIENT PARTICIPANT OBSERVER 1.

Non-controlled observation: The observation is done without managing. This type of observation needs to be supplemented by structured observation or schedules of information (see Goode & Hatt. 1952) . organising and directing the normal activities /surroundings by any internal force. it is called noncontrolled observation. Non participant observation: The observer does not actively participate in the group activities but observes the group from a distance and the observer is fully aware that he/she is entirely apart from the object of observation.

KEY INFORMANTS (KI) INTERVIEW An important qualitative method. particularly in areas where the entry has not yet been made .

y trustworthy and y should have other personal attributes conducive to conducting detailed interviews. y articulate. y willing to participate. . y Has unique position in the community Conducting Interviews y The interview should be characterized by Silent Probe Phased assertion.ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF KI INTERVIEWS Selection of KI KI should.

CASE STUDIES A fairly exhaustive study of a person or group is called a life or case history or case study. Burgess termed the case study method. `the social microscopes' (Young. It deepens our perception & give us clear insight into life. Because of its aid in studying behaviour in specific. precise detail. 1973) A case study explores the social process while statistical technique reveals the extent & degree of association .

The subject (he/she) must be viewed as a member of a cultural group/community. social participation exercised by the subject . The continuous related character of experience from childhood through adulthood should be stressed.THE MAJOR CRITERIA FOR LIFE HISTORY STUDY Behaviour of an individual must be viewed as a response to definite social stimulations. The social situation must be studied to understand the degree of social pressures.

impulses. conflicts. fears. and ways of perceiving and responding Projective methods were initially used by psychologists and psychiatrists for the diagnosis and treatment of emotionally disordered patients .PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE In a projective test. an individual supplies structure to unstructured stimuli in a manner consistent with the individual·s own unique pattern of conscious and unconscious needs. desires.

µ Subjects are unaware of what they disclose. . Projection is greater to stimulus material that is similar to the examinee.ASSUMPTIONS The more ambiguous the stimuli. Every response provides meaning for personality analysis. the more examinees reveal about their personality. There is an ´unconscious.

. It is a comfortable means of expression for those respondents who feel shy to speak about reproduction and sexuality. reproductive health issues.BODY MAPPING It is a projective technique in which respondents draw maps of human body (see Ulinetal. In this method respondents are asked to sketch reproductive organs or to label body parts and explain the functions. researchers thus can identify gaps that could be addressed through interventions. 2002). This method is useful to study people·s perceptions about human physiology.EXAMPLE .

IMPORTANCE OF COMBINING DIFFERENT DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Mix of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Techniques Reduction in chances of bias More comprehensive understaing of study topic .

BIAS IN INFORMATION COLLECTION Defective Instruments Observers Bias Effect of the interview on thr informant Information Bias y These affect the validity and Reliability of the study .

PRETESTING AND PILOT STUDIES Pre-test helps in evaluating the different questions. y questionnaire format and y Interview process. y the language. y . It can also be used to familiarise interviewers with the questionnaire or schedule.

IN THE PROCESS OF PRE-TESTING
The questionnaire is checked for clarity and understanding and the prospective respondents are informed about the same. After this is established, interviewer can ask the respondent what came to his mind when the question was put forward. Respondent's answer helps the researcher in understanding whether the question evokes what it was supposed to evoke or not. If it does not, then the wording of the question ought to change. In this way, confusing words and phrases can be avoided.

IN THE PROCESS OF PRE-TESTING

When a respondent hesitates to answer or is unable to understand a question, additional questions intended to overcome hesitancy or misunderstanding help in modifying the questionnaire. The researcher who developed the questionnaire should himself/herself conduct some of the pre-test interviews as it helps in evaluating the responses and determining whether changes should be made or not. Pre-testing should also be conducted in a population, which is very similar to the study population. Twenty-five to fifty pre-test interviews are usually sufficient to check the quality of the questionnaire. However, their number depends upon the purpose and availability of time and money. If pre-test is used for training the interviewers, then more interviews, can be conducted. The data obtained from the pre-test are not to be included in the final study.

PILOT SURVEY A series of small pre-tests can be conducted on the isolated problems of the design, and after establishing a broad plan of enquiry, it may take the form of a pilot survey, "a small replica of the main survey - a dress rehearsal". - Moser and Kalton

but if the variability is not much. Estimating the non-response rates : Through pilot surveys one can estimate the refusal and non-contact rate and accordingly decide upon the appropriate technique of data collection. . which is important to know for determining the sample design and size : If the variability is more. pre-test may be done to see their completeness. Finding variability within the population. even a smaller sample will be adequate. up-todateness and convenience in obtaining such records. a bigger sample would be required. adequacy.THE IMPORTANCE OF PRE-TESTS AND PILOT SURVEYS LIES IN Determining the adequacy of the for a study sampling frame : High hospital records are to be used. One can also evaluate the strain on and efficiency of interviewers.

For example. and efficiency of the field organisation staff : Pre-tests and pilot surveys are effective instruments in checking whether the interviewers are able to follow the instructions properly or they misunderstand something. Similarly. language.THE IMPORTANCE OF PRE-TESTS AND PILOT SURVEYS LIES IN To determine the usefulness of questionnaire : The adequacy of questions. If the questions are unable to convey what they are intended to. . time and money. whether the codes allocated for different answers are adequate or not or is there a need to convert an open question to a structured question or vice-versa. unambiguity of words. clarity of definitions and use of technical terms. Through pilot surveys one may also get some idea of the estimated cost of the main survey and consider the areas where economies can be made : Pilot surveys not only help in improving upon the questionnaire. probably there is a need to remove it or change its language or place. a heavy concentration of responses at one extreme may be indicative of a leading question. but also give an insight in to the researcher whether there is really a need to carry out the main survey or not. their placement. which has suggested some stereotyped answers. a large number of `don't know' replies suggests a vague question. To determine the adequacy of instructions to the interviewers. If a large number of people refuse to answer a particular question. there is a need to make the necessary changes. The difficulties encountered during pilot surveys and pre-tests help in improving the questionnaire for the main study. codes chosen for pre-coded questions. The size and design of pilot survey is a matter of convenience.

or do they reflect also the influence of other factors? y .THE VALIDITY OF MEASUREMENT/ TOOL Basic questions must be asked about any measuring instrument What does it measure? y Are the data it provides relevant to the characteristic in which one is interested? y Do the differences in scores represent the differences on the characteristic one is trying to measure.

WAYS TO EVALUATE THE VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT Face Validity Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Construct Validity .

the higher the face validity. but we could calculate the validity figures by computing the amount of agreement between judges. Evaluating the face validity is a subjective process. . who read or look at a measuring technique and decide whether in their opinion it measures what its name suggests. Every instrument must pass the face validity test either formally or informally. an instrument would not be used.FACE VALIDITY Face validity is evaluated by a group of judges. sometimes experts. Every researcher who chooses an instrument is a judge who has decided that the test measures the concept he or she wishes to study. Without such minimal face validity. The higher the percent who says it measures what it claims to measure.

if a scale were being devised for the purpose of measuring religiosity. to be active in religious activities and otherwise to give evidence of high religiosity.CONCURRENT VALIDITY Concurrent validity is the ability of a measuring instrument to distinguish between individuals who are known to differ. . the questions could be tested by administering them to one group known to be religious. Thus. If the test failed to discriminate between the two groups. it could not be considered to measure religiosity with validity. T hese answers would then be compared with those from a group known not to be very religious and also known to oppose religious behaviour in other ways.

.PREDICTIVE VALIDITY Predictive validity is the ability of a measuring instrument to identify future differences. For instance. Predictive validity is an evaluation of a measure's practical worth in foreseeing the future. the predictive validity of a scale measuring attitude towards birth control is the ability of the scale to identify who will eventually adopt contraception and who will not practise contraception.

construct validity requires more than expert opinion. and that the instrument measures that particular construct and no other. that it is distinct from other constructs. . Unlike face validity.CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Construct validity is an evaluation of the extent to which an instrument measures the theoretical construct the investigator wishes to measure. It requires a demonstration that the construct in question exists.

they will yield the same results to the extent that the measurements are free from random or variable errors. which the instrument is attempting to measure. The evaluation of the reliability of any measurement procedure consists of determining how much of the variation in scores among individuals is due to inconsistencies in measurement. but a variety of constant and random errors. When independent and comparable measures of the same thing are obtained.THE RELIABILITY OF MEASUREMENT /INSTRUMENT scores on measuring instruments usually reflect not only the characteristics. The reliability of a measuring instrument should be determined before it is used in a study .

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