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Prof. Dr. Göksel N. Demirer
Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü
Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi

Anaerobik Arıtma Teknolojileri ve


Moleküler Ekoloji Tanımlama Teknikleri

31 Ekim -02 Kasım 2006

Türkiye Şeker Fabrikaları A.Ş., Şeker Enstitüsü


Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi
Anaerobik Arıtma
Anaerobik arıtma, mikroorganizmaların organik atıkları, serbest
oksijensiz bir ortamda, metan, karbondioksit, hücresel ve diğer
organik maddelere çevirdiği biyolojik bir işlemdir.

| 

   
Organik madde + H2O CH4 + CO2 + NH3 + H2S + Yeni hücre

Organik maddelerin anaerobik arıtımı sonucu ortaya önemli bir


temiz/alternatif enerji kaynağı olan biyogaz (% 20-30 CO2, % 60-79
CH4, % 1-2 H2S) çıkar.

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Anaerobik Bozundurmaya Tabi Tutulabilen Atık Türleri

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Anaerobik Bozunma ve Enerji

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Anaerobik Bozundurma ve Sera Gazı Azaltımı

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Bir Yakıt Olarak Biyogaz

Bu tablodaki veriler göz önüne alındığında:

- Enerji değeri bazında biyogazın sıvılaştırılmış propan gazı (LPG)


ve kerosin ile eşdeğer bir yakıt olduğu,
- Tezeğe göre 4,5, odun kömürüne göre 1,6 ve oduna göre 2,25 defa
daha fazla ısı ürettiği

görülecektir.
2  
 




   
 


 
naerobik arıtma sistemlerinin aerobik arıtma sistemlerine göre
avantaj ve dezavantajları (Speece, 1996)
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Ëiyokütle büyümesi için uzun süre gereksinimi


Ëazı atıksular için:
|  yoğun alkalinite gereksinimi
yetersiz çıkış kalitesi
Ë üşük atık biyokütle üretimi yetersiz metan üretimi kaynaklı ısıtma gereksinimi
Ë üşük azot ve fosfor gereksinimi koku problemi
Ë üşük reaktör hacmi Ë üşük sıcaklıkta düşük kinetik hızlar
Ënerji tasarrufu ve değerli yan ürünler
Ë aha kolay işletim
Ëtıkgaz arıtımı gereksiniminin azalması/ortadan
kalkması
Ë üşük köpüklenme problemleri
Ëerobik olarak giderilemeyen bazı maddelerin giderimi
Ë üşük klorlu organik toksisite düzeyleri
Ëevsimsel arıtım olanağı
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££ 
  


      
  


    
naerobik erobik

reaktör Hacmi (m3) 844 6 435


Yüzey lanı (m2) 84 1 393
nerji Gereksinimi (kw-saat/gün) 720 8 600
nerji Gideri ( olar/yıl) 15 700 188 200
etan Gazı Üretimi (m3/gün) 2 040 -
etan Gazının Getirisi ( olar/yıl) 150 000 -
tık iyokütle Üretimi (ton/yıl) 180 1 800

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Tüm dünyada yaygın olarak uygulanan ve üzerinde çok
yoğun araştırmaların yapıldığı bu arıtma teknolojisi,
ülkemizde halen çok sınırlı düzeyde uygulanmakta ve bu
duruma paralel olarak, araştırma düzeyinde de sınırlı ölçekte
çalışmalar yapılmaktadır.

Oysa, yukarıda açıklanan avantajları nedeniyle, bu prosese


mutlaka ülkemizde de hak ettiği önemin verilmesi
gerekmektedir.

DPTƞnin Beş Yıllık Planƞlarında da Ơp p   

p  p 
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işaret etmektedir

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ÜLKEMİZDE ENDÜSTRİYEL ATIKSU ARITIMI

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gerektirmeyen ayrıca değerli yan ürünler sağlayarak arıtım
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Bu çalışmalar kapsamında yürütülen deneysel çalışmalarda

AtıkKarakterizasyon Çalışmaları
Aiyokimyasal etan Potansiyeli (P P) eneyleri
ASürekli reaktörlerde rıtılabilirlik eneyleri
Aetan Gazı Üretim Potansiyeli ve Yüzdesi Tayini

yapılmıştır.

2  
 




   
 


 
Biyokimyasal Metan Potansiyeli (BMP) Deneyleri

BMP bir atıksuyun anaerobik olarak arıtılabilirliğinin metan üretimi cinsinden


belirlenmesi ilkesine dayanır.

Πo n c e n t r a t io n
(m g /L)
oAnaerobic counterpart of aerobic BOD test. N H 4Πl
M g S O 4. H 2O
m200
400

¥ Cheap KŒl
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400
300
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KI
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Z n Πl2
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N a M o O 4.2 H 2O
0 .5
0 .5
H 3B O 3 0 .5


 N iΠl2 .6 H 2 0
N a W O 4.2 H 2O
0 .5
0 .5
N a 2S e O 3 0 .5
Πy s t e in e m0
N aH ŒO 3 6000

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ELDE EDİLEN BAZI ÖNEMLİ SONUÇLAR:

Atık/Atıksu KOİ Giderim Verimi Metan Üretim Verimi


(%)

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^IG^-RATE REACTORS IN ANAEROBIC TREATMENT
What is high rate ?
^RT < 10 days
SRT/^RT • 5-100
MLVSS Conc.: • 10 g/L
OLR • 5 g/L.day

All modern high rate anaerobic processes are based on the concept of
retaining high viable biomass by some mode of bacterial sludge
immobilization. These are achieved by one of the following methods:

Ź Formation of highly settleable sludge aggregates combined with gas


separation and sludge settling, e.g. upflow anaerobic sludge blanket
reactor and anaerobic baffled reactor.

Ź Bacterial attachment to high density particulate carrier materials, e.g.


fluidized bed reactors and anaerobic expanded bed reactors.

Ź Entrapment of sludge aggregates between packing material supplied


to the reactor, e.g. downflow anaerobic filter and upflow anaerobic filter.

2  
 




   
 


 
| Z 

L An attached growth
process
L Inert support medium
for biofilm is present
L Compressed version of
Expanded and Fluidized
Bed Processes
L In use as from 1950¶s

2  
 




   
 


 
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L Providing high biomass concentrations in
reactor(^igh Values of X and SRT)
L ^igh treatment efficiency in wastewaters that
high organic strenght (1000-20000 mg/L) and (1)

low suspended solid conc.


L Small reactor volumes w.r.t suspended
growth reactors.
L Relatively stable operation under variable
feed conditions, toxic shocks
L No mechanical mixing required
L Applicable in variety type of wastewaters
2  
 




   
 


 
Disadvantages
L SS Accumulation may negatively impact
reactor hydraulics and internal mass transfer
L Clogging problem
L Limited access to reactor interior
L In case of low ^RT values, reduced
equalizaiton capacity
L Cost of inert packing material

2  
 




   
 


 
ANAEROBIC EXPANDED OR
FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

L Expanded/fluidized bed reactors


have much larger surface area
per unit reactor volume, which
increases the reactor micro-
organism concentration

L The expanded bed and fluidized


bed reactors have more surface
area per reactor volume for
biomass growth and better
mass transfer than the up-flow
bed reactor

L The anaerobic expanded bed


reactor uses a fine-grain sand to
support biofilm growth

2  
 




   
 


 
L A specific surface area of 3000 m2 / m3 has been
reported for fluidized bed reactor and the
concentration of the microorganism of 30 g/L have
been measured in anaerobic processes

L In the upflow attached growth anaerobic expanded bed


reactor (AEBR) process the packing material is
generally silica sand with a diameter in the range of 0.2
mm to 0.5 mm and specific gravity of 2.65

L For operation with about 20 percent bed expansion, an


upflow velocity of about 2 m/h is used

L The smaller packing provides a greater surface area


per unit volume, theoretically supporting a greater
amount of biomass growth

2  
 




   
 


 


 ,!-
L ability to provide high biomass concentration and relatively high
organic loadings
L high mass transfer
L ability to handle shock loads due to its mixing and dilution with
recycle
L minimal space requirements



 ,!-
L The process is best suited for soluble ww due to its inability to
capture solids
L Care must also be taken in the inlet and outlet designs to assure
good flow distribution
L pumping power required to operate the fluidized bed, the cost of
reactor packing
L the need to control the packing level and wasting with biogrowth,
and the length of start-up time

2  
 




   
 


 
Performance data for Anaerobic FBRs

CO loading etention time


wastewater Temp 0C CO removal
kg/m3.d hour
Citric acid 35 42 24 70

Starch, whey 35 8.2 105 99

ilk 37 3-5 18-12 71-85

olasses 36 12-30 3-8 50-95

Glucose 35 10 12 95

Sulfite,pulp 35 3-18 3-62 60-80

2  
 




   
 


 
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor

L Anaerobic granular sludge bed technology for the


"high rate" anaerobic treatment of wastewater was
initiated with UASB reactors.

L ^igh rate anaerobic wastewater treatment is not


limited to removal of bulk organic pollution in
wastewater. Other applications:
® sulfate reduction for the removal and recovery
of heavy metals and sulfur
® denitrification for the removal of nitrates
® bioremediation for the breakdown of toxic
priority pollutants to harmless products

2  
 




   
 


 
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Working Principles
L Wastewater is distributed into the tank at appropriately spaced inlets.
L The wastewater passes upwards through an anaerobic sludge bed.
The microorganisms form granules (pellets) of 0.5 to 2 mm diameter
that have a high sedimentation velocity and thus resist wash-out
from the system even at high hydraulic loads.
L The sludge blanket above the sludge bed, provides further treatment
to the wastewater passed from the sludge bed due to channeling, and
will help in maintaining stable effluent quality.
L The upward motion of released gas bubbles causes hydraulic
turbulence that provides reactor mixing without any mechanical
parts.
L At the top of the reactor, there is a three-phase separator (also known
as the Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) separator) which separates the solid
particles from the liquid and gas, allowing liquid and gas to leave the
system.The three-phase-separator is commonly a gas cap with a
settler situated above it. Below the opening of the gas cap, baffles
are used to deflect gas to the gas-cap opening.
2  
 




   
 


 
2  
 




   
 


 
Wastewaters Treated by UASB

L Industrial wastewaters
® Breweries and beverage industry
® Distilleries and fermentation industry
® Food Industry (e.g. Sugar beet, potato)
® Pulp and paper mill
These four industrial sectors account for 87% of the applications.
Others:
® chemical and petrochemical industry effluents
® textile industry wastewater
® landfill leachates
Note: Not very suitable for dairy and slaughterhouse wastes due to
loss of fine solids and washout.
L Domestic wastewaters (in warm climates)

2  
 




   
 


 
Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB)
L EGSB can be taught as a
vertically stretched version of
the UASB reactor
L In order to improve the sludge-
wastewater contact and use
the entire reactor volume
efficiently a better influent
distribution was required
L Different feed inlet devices,
more feed inlet points per
square meter or higher
superficial velocities have
been proposed as solutions

2  
 




   
 


 
Application Areas

L For the waters with 2-5 kg/m3 COD


concentration with low solid content
L At higher velocity the solids particle could
not entrapped by biomass so it passes
through the bed resulting low solids
removal
L Food, brewery, and slaughterhouse and
even in domestic wastewater treatment

2  
 




   
 


 
Œharacteristics of different reactor types

Gas solid
naerobic Start up Channelling ffluent Carrier Typical loading rates
separation HrT (d)
reactor type period effect recycle packing (kg CO / m3.day)
device
CSTr - Not present Not required Not required Not essential 0.25-3 10-60
Contact - Non-existent Not required Not required Not essential 0.25-4 12-15
US 4-16 Low Not required ssential Not essential 10-30 0.5-7
naerobic
3-4 High Not required eneficial ssential 1-20 0.5-12
filter
r 3-4 Non-existent required eneficial ssential 1-100 0.2-5
: naerobic luidized ed reactor

2