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V What is leadership?
V Traits of effective leaders
V Factors affecting leadership
V Leadership styles
V Change leadership
V Theories of leadership
V Survey
V Analysis
V Few examples
V Conclusions
V Leadership is a state of mind.

V About vision , spirit and character ; getting

diverse individuals to work together as a
team .
?esire To
Intelligence Lead
Self Knowledge
V The managerǯs personal background: What
personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and
experiences does the manager have
V Staff being supervised
V The organization: ahe traditions, values,
philosophy, and concerns of the organization
V Leadership style is the manner and
approach of providing direction,
implementing plans, and motivating
V Leadership styles may vary over different

Autocratic ?emocratic

Laissez-faire Paternalistic
V Autocratic (Authoritarian)
Ô Leader makes decisions without reference to
anyone else
Ô High degree of dependency on the leader
Ô Can create de-motivation and alienation
of staff
Ô May be valuable in some types of business
where decisions need to be made quickly and
V ?emocratic (Participative)
Ô Encourages decision making from different
Ô May help motivation and involvement
Ô Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas
Ô Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the business
Ô Can delay decision making
V Laissez-Faire (?elegative)
Ô 0Let it beǯ Ȃ the leadership responsibilities are shared
by all
Ô Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas
are important
Ô Can be highly motivational, as people have control
over their working life
Ô Can make coordination and decision making time-
consuming and lacking in overall direction
Ô Relies on good team work
Ô Relies on good interpersonal relations
V Paternalistic:
Ô Leader acts as a 0father figureǯ

Ô Paternalistic leader makes decision but may


Ô Believes in the need to support staff

V The most challenging aspect of business is leading
and managing change
V The business environment is subject to fast-paced
economic and social change
V Leaders need to be aware of how change impacts
on workers
V Rethinking systems to introduce change on parts of
the whole and their relationship to one another
Transformational leadership
Ô They are charismatic and have a vision of how good
things can be.
Ô Focuses more on missions and strategies.
Ô ?esigns & redesigns jobs to make them meaningful &
Ô To respond to the dynamic environment.
Transactional leadership
Ô Traditional model of leadership
Ô Focuses on tactical issues
Ô The person works within the rules
Ô Short-term & hard data-oriented.
Trait theory:
Ô Identify personal characteristics responsible for effective
Ô Many Dztraitsdz are the result of skills and knowledge.
Ô A good leader possess the following traits:
Ô Personality
Ô ?ominance and personal presence
Ô Charisma
Ô Self confidence
Ô Achievement
Ô Ability to formulate a clear vision
Behavioral theory:
Ô Identifies types of behavior
V Imply that leaders can be trained Ȃ focus on the way
of doing things
Ô mtructure based behavioural theories Ȃ focus on the leader
instituting structures Ȃ task orientated
Ô Velationship based behavioural theories Ȃ focus on the
development and maintenance of relationships Ȃ process
Contingency theory:
V This is a leader match theory
V A leaderǯs effectiveness depends on how
well the leaderǯs style fits the context
V The theory was developed by studying the
styles of leaders in situations and whether
they were effective
V Concerned with styles and situations
V bjective:
To determine the dominant & back-up
leadership style of respondents.
Ô Research design: descriptive
Ô Sample size: è
Ô Sampling method: convenient sampling
Ô Leadership styles stem from 3 mutually
exclusive orientations:
Ô ^enevolent
Ô Critical
Ô Developmental

Ô -o single style is universally effective

Ô Flexibility & perceptiveness about usage of
style are important attributes for leaders
V ºuestionnaire has 12 sets of items
V Each set of items contain 1 0benevolentǯ style
related item(A), 1 0criticalǯ style related
item(B) & 1 0developmentalǯ style related
V Sum of all 0Aǯs =benevolent
V Sum of all 0Bǯs=critical
V Sum of all 0Cǯs=developmental
V A total of 6 points have to be distributed in
every set of items.
V Total of all the 3 scores should add up to 72 as
there are 12 sets of items.
„ighest score indicates the dominant style of
the respondent.
Next highest score indicates the back-up style.


C [

è benevolent
E è[ critical


Respondents Benevolent Critical ?evelopmental



V ?ominant style for majority of respondents
is 0benevolentǯ.
V Back up style is 0criticalǯ in this case.
Federal Express Leadership ºualities
It has a system for rating aspiring leaders according to 9 attributes:
Ô Charisma
Ô Individual consideration
Ô Intellectual stimulation
Ô Courage
Ô ?ependability
Ô Flexibility
Ô Integrity
Ô Judgement
Ô Respect for others
Lufthansa leadership Compass
It includes the following six key categories, which set out
a range of skills and behaviors including: vision,
decisiveness, concern for people, self-reflection and
professional know-how:
V Entrepreneurial leadership
V Breakthrough problem solving
V Winning others
V Leading people
V Attitude and drive
V International business competencies
Phillips leadership Competencies
Six Leadership Competencies define the behavior that is required to
achieve business success in Phillips:
V Shows determination to achieve excellent results
V Focuses on the market
V Finds better ways
V ?emands top performance
V Inspires commitment
V ?evelops self and others
Shell leadership framework
The Leadership Framework used by Shell includes nine key
elements as indicated below:
V Builds Shared Vision
V Champions Customer Focus
V Maximizes Business pportunities
V ?emonstrates Professional Mastery
V ?isplays Personal Effectiveness
V ?emonstrates Courage
V Motivates, Coaches & ?evelops
V Values ?ifferences
V ?elivers Results
Vodafone global leadership competencies
The Vodafone leadership competencies underlying their
Global Leadership Program are divided into five
V Values communication
V International team development
V Strategic vision
V Building organizational capability
V Commercial drive
V Effectiveness of the leader depends on
both the content of the interaction and the
leaderǯs style.
V A leader is a coach who has the final
say, but gathers information from staff
before making a decision.
V Leaders should be both relationship & task-