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INSC201: Energy!

Instructors: Baski & Hunnicutt (sec 1-TR 11am), Baski & Skrobiszewski
(sec 3-TR 2pm), Reber (sec 11-MWF 1pm), Woodworth (sec 2-MWF 3pm)
Pre-requisites: Math 131 or Stat 208 (proficiency with basic algebra)
Highly Recommended: CPS clicker (register at Blackboard)
Optional: Energy, Environment & Climate by Wolfson

Why is the bulb crossed out?

Three Gorges Video

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Syllabus for INSC201: Energy!
Class Work (15% or 0%) – need CPS clicker

Homework (35%) – due weekly on Wed by 8 am in LON-CAPA

Quizzes (20% or 25%) – due bi-weekly on Wed by 8 am in LON-CAPA

Mid-term exam (10% or 15%) – in-class and closed-book

Final exam (20% or 25%) – in-class and closed-book

Grade calculated using both Method #1 & Method #2 and highest grade
is assigned. Class work is not required but highly recommended!

p. 2
Syllabus Questions
 Have you used LON-CAPA before? (a) yes (b) no

 Can you make-up a homework or quiz? (a) yes (b) no

 For clicker class work, the answer must be correct for credit (unless
“starred”) and there is a maximum of 10 points. If you miss 4
questions one day (out of 16 questions), then what is your score?
(a) 6 pts (b) 7 pts (c) 8 pts

 On a quiz, if you correctly answered all 10 questions but used


two tries on four of the questions, then what is your score?
(a) 80% (b) 90% (c) 100%

 How many grades can you drop for the following:


class work, homework, and quizzes? (3-digit answer)

p. 3
Reinforcement of Course Material
(1)
Clicker Questions

(2)
LON-CAPA Homework
“Mindful” PRACTICE!

Exam Questions
(3)

p. 4
Discussion Question: Energy Challenges

 Which energy-related challenge are you most concerned about?


(a) Rising energy costs
(b) Climate change (e.g., global warming)
(c) Pollution such as acid rain

p. 5
Discussion Question: Energy Conservation
 Which of these actions are you willing to do now?
(Enter in numeric order.)
(1) Recycle (cans, plastics, paper).
(2) Adjust your thermostat (5° colder in winter, warmer in summer).
(3) Drive 20% fewer miles, take public transportation, or drive a more fuel efficient vehicle.
(4) Pay 30% more for gasoline and/or electricity for "energy" taxes.
(5) Nothing.

p. 6
Topic 1: Our Earth!
 Approximately how old is the Earth?
(a) 4.6 million years (b) 4.6 billion years (c) 4.6 trillion years

 Approximately how many years have homo sapiens lived on Earth?


(a) 2,000 years (b) 200,000 years (c) 20 million years

p. 7
History of Earth

Anaerobic Photo-
life-forms synthesis

Aerobic
life-forms

p. 8
Photosynthesis

 When plants convert CO2 and water into sugar “fuel”, the process:
(a) requires energy
(b) releases energy

Sunlight
ENERGY

Carbon Sugar
Dioxide Oxygen
fuel
Gas Water Gas
Chlorophyll

Consumed Produced
p. 9
Photosynthesis
 Photosynthesis consumes __________. (Enter in numeric order.)
(1) O2 and sugar fuel
(2) CO2 and H2O
(3) energy
 Photosynthesis produces __________.

Sunlight
ENERGY

Carbon Sugar
Dioxide Oxygen
fuel
Gas Water Gas
Chlorophyll

Consumed Produced
p. 10
Respiration (Combustion)

 When life forms breathe and "combust" sugar fuel, the process:
(a) requires energy
(b) releases energy
Aerobic Life form

Carbon
Sugar Dioxide
Oxygen Water
fuel Gas
Gas

ENERGY!
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Respiration (Combustion)
 Respiration consumes __________. (Enter in numeric order.)
(1) O2 and sugar fuel
(2) CO2 and H2O
(3) energy Aerobic Life form
 Respiration produces __________.

Carbon
Sugar Dioxide
Oxygen Water
fuel Gas
Gas

ENERGY!
p. 12
Size of Earth

 What is the approximate


circumference of the Earth?
(a) 6,400 km
(b) 40,000 km
(c) 12,800 km

 Which is larger?
(a) km (kilometer)
(b) mile

p. 13
Structure of Earth
 What major magnetic element comprises the
Earth’s inner core?
(a) steel
(b) lead
(c) iron

 Does Earth’s magnetic field protect it from


the “solar wind”?
(a) yes
(b) no

p. 14
Temperature of Earth
Earth’s temperature has changed about 30 °C over the past few billion years, where it
has usually been warmer than today.
 A temperature change of 30 °C correspond to a change of how many degrees in
Fahrenheit? (Format = XX)
Hint: A change of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1.8 °F.

p. 15
Composition of Earth's Atmosphere
 The "young" Earth had an atmosphere that contained N2 and CO2. Oxygen was not yet present because _______ did not
yet occur.
(a) photosynthesis from plants (b) anaerobic life forms

 Today, the atmosphere is roughly 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen.


What gas has always been present in Earth's atmosphere?
(a) carbon dioxide (CO2) (b) oxygen (O2) (c) nitrogen (N2)

p. 16
Layers of Earth's Atmosphere
60 Mesosphere
 In which layer does
temperature increase ~50 – 80 km
with altitude? 50
(a) Troposphere
(b) Stratosphere

Altitude (km)
40
(c) Mesosphere
Stratosphere
30
~10 – 50 km

20 OZONE heats up!

10 Troposphere
~0 – 10 km
80% mass
–60 –40 –20 0 20
Temperature (°C) p. 17
Layers of Earth's Atmosphere
 In which layer does “weather” occur (and above which planes fly!)
(a) Troposphere (b) Stratosphere (c) Mesosphere

 What important gas exists in the stratosphere and helps protect us


from ionizing ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun?
(a) ozone (O3) (b) carbon dioxide (CO2) (c) nitrogen (N2)

Now we will look at the electromagnetic radiation from the sun . . .

p. 18
Sunlight is Part of Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum
 ORDER the types of EM radiation from highest to lowest energy.
IR = infrared
(a) UV (b) IR (c) visible (3-digit answer) UV = ultraviolet

Shorter Wavelength Longer Wavelength


HIGHER Energy LOWER Energy

Gamma X-rays Ultra Infrared Radio Waves


Rays violet Micro
wave TV FM AM

Violet Visible Light Red

400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm


p. 19
Incoming Radiation from Sun
 The Sun’s EM radiation peaks at which color in the visible spectrum?
(a) violet (b) blue/green (c) red

PHET of Blackbody Radiation

Visible

Ultra- Infrared
violet

p. 20
Sunlight Reaching Earth through Atmosphere
 Does the Earth’s atmosphere absorb some UV? (a) yes (b) no
7% 46% 47% % incoming sunlight
UV Visible Infrared

Sunlight OUTSIDE atmosphere

Sunlight INSIDE atmosphere


reaching Earth’s surface

400 x 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 500


HIGHER Energy Wavelength (nm) LOWER Energy
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Visible Part of Sunlight

 What is the shortest wavelength (or highest energy) light that our eyes
usually can see in units of nanometers (nm)? (= violet)
(a) 100 nm (b) 280 nm (c) 400 nm (d) 750 nm (e) 1000 nm

 What is the longest wavelength (or lowest energy) light that our eyes
usually can see? (= red)

 Your eye is most sensitive to the color green. Which statement is


true?
(a) green has a shorter wavelength than red
(b) green has a longer wavelength than red

p. 22
Ultraviolet Part of Sunlight
 What type of UV light is mostly absorbed by the atmosphere?
(a) UVA (b) UVB (c) UVC
 What type of UV light causes sunburn and is used for sunscreen
ratings?

p. 23
Outgoing EM Radiation from Earth
 Radiation from the Earth is in what region of the EM spectrum?
(a) ultraviolet (< 400 nm) (b) visible (c) infrared (> 750 nm)
Hint: Colder Earth emits lower-energy radiation than hotter Sun!
PHET of Blackbody Radiation
10 µ m or 10,000 nm

48 µ m
p. 24
Role of Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
 When greenhouse gases re-emit IR photons, about what percentage
travel back down to Earth? (a) 10% (b) 50% (c) 100%

1. Photons (yellow) of sunlight travel to Earth PHET of GHG Effect

3. GHG’s absorb and emit IR photons (red)

2. Earth absorbs sun’s photons and emits IR photons (red)p. 25


Role of Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
 Indicate the correct ORDER for the steps given below in the greenhouse gas
(GHG) effect. (4-digit answer)
(a) Visible radiation passes through the Earth's atmosphere.
(b) The sun emits visible radiation.
(c) Greenhouse gases absorb and emit IR radiation.
(d) The ground absorbs visible radiation and emits IR radiation.

 Without the GHG effect the Earth’s average temperature would be about –4 ºF (–
20 ºC). The GHG effect increases the Earth’s average temperature by about 35 ºC
to: (pay attention to units!)
(a) 30 ºF (b) 60 ºF (c) 80 ºF

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Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere
Water vapor = 60% of natural greenhouse effect
Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 26%
Methane (CH4) + nitrous oxide (N2O) + ozone (O3) = 8%

 Rank the following gases from those that contribute the most to the
greenhouse effect down to the least.
(a) H2O
(b) N2 and O2
(c) CH4
(d) CO2

Vibrations and Bending of CO2 = Greenhouse Gas that absorbs infrared

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CO2 Processes on Earth
 Determine whether each process decreases (enter “0”) or increases (enter “1”) CO2 levels in the
atmosphere. (4-digit answer)
 volcanic action
 weathering of rocks with rain containing dissolved CO2
 photosynthesis
 burning of forests or gasoline (combustion)

p. 28
CO2 Feedback Cycle on Earth

 If the Earth's temperature increases, then


(a) rock weathering increases and the CO2 concentration increases.
(b) rock weathering increases and the CO2 concentration decreases.
(c) rock weathering decreases and the CO2 concentration decreases.
(d) rock weathering decreases and the CO2 concentration increases.

 If the Earth's temperature initially increases, then rock weathering causes the Earth’s temperature to eventually:
(a) increase more (b) decrease again

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