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Leadership

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Trait and Behavioral Theories of
Leadership
•Trait Theory
•Behavioral Styles Theory

Situational Theories
•Fiedler’s Contingency Model
•Path-Goal Theory
•Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
Theory
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From Transactional to Charismatic
Leadership
•How Does Charismatic Leadership Transform
Followers?
•Research and Managerial Implications

Additional Perspectives on
Leadership
•The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of
Leadership
•Substitutes for Leadership
•Servant-Leadership
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•Super leadership

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Trait Theory
Leadership Traits:
Traits represent the personal
characteristics
that differentiate
• Historic leaders
findings reveal from followers.
that leaders and followers
vary by
- intelligence
- dominance
- self-confidence
- level of energy and activity
- task-relevant knowledge
• Contemporary findings show that
- people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or
she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and
dominance
- people want their leaders to be credible
- credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and
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competent

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Trait Theory (continued)
• Gender and leadership
- men and women were seen as displaying more task and
social leadership, respectively
- women used a more democratic or participative style
than men, and men used a more autocratic and directive
style than women
- men and women were equally assertive
- women executives, when rated by their peers, managers
and direct reports, scored higher than their male
counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria
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Behavioral Styles Theory
• Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior.
1. Consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers
2. Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group
members should be doing
• University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the
Ohio State studies
- one style was employee centered and the other was job centered
• Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing
concern for production and concern for people
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• Research shows that there is not one best


style of leadership. The effectiveness of a
particular leadership style depends on the
situation at hand.
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Representation of Fiedler’s
Contingency Model
Situational High Control Moderate Low Control
Control Situations Control Situations Situations

Leader-memberGood Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor


relations

Task Structure High High High Low High High Low Low

Position Power Strong Weak StrongWeak Strong StrongStrong Weak

Situation I II III IV V VI VII VIII

Optimal
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Leadership Task Motivated Relationship Task


Style Leadership Motivated Motivated
Leadership Leadership
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House’s Path-Goal Theory
Employee Characteristics
- Locus of control
- Task ability
- Need for achievement
- Experience
- Need for clarity

Leadership Styles Employee Attitudes


- Directive and Behavior
- Supportive - Job satisfaction
- Participative - Acceptance of leader
- Achievement oriented - Motivation

Environmental Factors
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- Employee’s task
- Authority system
- Work group

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Skills and Best Practices: Tips for
Improving Leader Effectiveness
Behavior Recommended
Behaviors Intensely listen to what others have to say.
Listen
Determine the true cause of performance
problems.
Think through problems from all
Examine
perspectives. Do not play favorites and find
solutions that benefit everyone involved.
Assist Help others to learn from mistakes and
errors.
Explain the rationale for decisions and
Develop implement fair policies and procedures.
Provide employees with the resources
Encourage
needed to do a job. Gently push people to
advance into more demanding roles.
Praise people for their good work. Focus on
Recognize
the positive whenever possible.
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Transactional versus
Charismatic Leadership

Transactional Leadership: focuses on the interpersonal


interactions between managers and employees
• Transactional Leaders
- use contingent rewards to motivate employees
- exert corrective action only when employees
fail to obtain performance goals
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Transactional versus Charismatic
Leadership (continued)

• Charismatic Leadership: emphasizes symbolic


leader behavior that transforms employees to pursue
organizational goals over self-interests
• Charismatic Leaders
- use visionary and inspirational messages
- rely on non-verbal communication
- appeal to ideological values
- attempt to intellectually stimulate employees
- display confidence in self and followers
- set high performance expectations
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Charismatic Model of Leadership
Individual and Effects on
Leader
Organizational followers and Outcomes
behavior
Characteristics work groups
• Traits •Leader •Increased •Personal
commitmen
• Organizational establishes a intrinsic
t to leader
vision motivation,
Culture and vision
achievement
orientation, and
goal pursuit
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Charismatic Model of Leadership
(cont)
Individual and Effects on
Leader
Organizational followers and Outcomes
behavior
Characteristics work groups
• Traits •Leader •Increased •Self-
establishes high identification with sacrificial
• Organizational performance the leader and the behavior
Culture expectations and collective interests
displays of organizational
confidence in members
him/herself and
•Increased cohesion
the collective
among workgroup •Organization
ability to realize
members al
the vision
•Increased self- commitment
•Leader models
esteem, self- •Task
the desired
efficacy, and meaningfulne
values, traits,
intrinsic interests in ss and
beliefs, and
goal satisfaction
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behaviors needed
accomplishment
to realize the
vision •Increased role
modeling of •Increased
charismatic individual
leadership group, and 13
The Leader-Member Exchange
(LMX Model)
• This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct
types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve,
and these exchanges are related to important work
outcomes.
- in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by
mutual trust, respect and liking
- out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by
a lack of mutual trust, respect and liking
• Research supports this model
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Substitutes for Leadership

• Substitutes for leadership represent situational


variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance
the effects of leadership.
• Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly
influence employee attitudes and performance.
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Substitutes for Leadership
Relationship- Task-Oriented or
Oriented or Initiating Structure
Considerate Leader Behavior
Leader is Unnecessary
Behavior is
Characteristic Unnecessary

Of the Subordinate
1. Ability, experience, training, knowledge X

2. Need for Independence X X

3. “Professional” orientation X X

4. Indifference toward organizational rewards X X

Of the Task
5. Unambiguous and Routine X
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6. Methodically invariant X

7. Provides its own feedback concerning


accomplishment X
8. Intrinsically satisfying. X
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Substitutes for Leadership (cont)
Relationship- Task-Oriented or
Oriented or Initiating Structure
Considerate Leader Behavior is
Leader Behavior Unnecessary
is Unnecessary
Characteristic

Of the Organization
9. Formalization (explicit plans, goals, and areas X
of responsibility)

10. Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules and X X


procedures)

11. Highly specified and active advisory and staff X X


functions

12. Closely knit, cohesive work groups X X


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13. Organizational rewards not with the leader’s


control

14. Spatial distance between superior and X


subordinate

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Leadership styles ,
activities and skills
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dael Nadler and Tushman's The Charismatic Leader

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Summary continuum of leadership styles drawn

from the classic studies & Theories of leadership

Subordinate centered
Boss centered Theory- y
Theory x

Autocratic Democratic
Production centered Employee-centered
Close General
Initiating structure Consideration
Task-directed Human relations
Directive Supportive
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Directive Participate

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Tannenbaum & SCHMIDT CONTINUUM of
leader behavior

• Leader as an announcer
• Leader as a seller
• Leader as a clarifier
• Leader as a senior partner
• Leader as a seeker
• Leader as a equal partner
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• Leader as a follower

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The Managerial Grid

1,9 9,9
High 9 Country club management Team management
Thoughtful attention needs of people Work accomplishment is from
for satisfying relationships leads to committed people, interdependence
8 A comfortable, friendly organization through a “common stake” in organization
purpose leads to relationship
atmosphere and work tempo of trust and respect
Concern for people

5
5,5
Organization Man Management
4 Adequate organization performance
possible through balancing the necessity to
get out work with maintaining
morale of the people at a satisfactory level
3 9,1
1,1
Authority-Obedience
Impoverished Management
Efficiency in operations results
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2 Exertion of minimum effort to get


from arranging conditions of
required work done is appropriate
work in such a way that human
Low to sustain organization membership
elements interfere to a minimal degree
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Low Concern for production High 22
Hersey and Blanchard’s
Situational Leadership Theory
Leader Behavior
High
Participating Selling
Relationship Behavior
(supportive behavior)
S3 S2
Share ideas and Explain decisions and
facilitate in provide opportunity for
decision making clarification

Delegating Telling
S4 S1
Turn over Provide specific
responsibility for instructions and closely
decisions and supervise performance
implementation
Low

Low Task Behavior High

Follower Readiness
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High Moderate
Low
R4 R3 R2
R1
Follower-Directed Leader-Directed

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Likert’s Systems of
Leadership

Exploitive Benevolent Participative


Democratic
Autocratic Autocratic
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Likert’s Systems of
Leadership
Exploitive Autocratic Benevolent Autocratic
(authoritarian) (paternalistic)
– Work centered – Work centered with protective
– Uses one way employee centered concern
communication – Condescending confidence
– Used by Theory X managers and trust in subordinates
– No confidence or trust in – Motivated by economic needs
subordinates and moderately by desire for
status
– Motivated by physical
– Decisions made at all levels,
security, economic needs
always checked by upper level
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and desire for status


– Decisions made at the top – Orders issued but with
comment opportunities
– Issues orders
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Likert’s Systems of Leadership
Participative Democratic
– Both work and people – Complete confidence and trust
centered in subordinates
– Substantial but not complete – Two way communication at all
confidence and trust in levels at all times
subordinates
– Interaction with individuals and
– Quite a bit of interaction groups are high
aimed at achieving objectives
– Decision making widely done
– Broad policy decisions at top,
throughout organization
specific decisions at lower
levels – Except in emergencies, goals
– Orders issued after are usually established
discussion with subordinates through group participation
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Leadership styles in perspective
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Leaders vs Managers
LEADERS MANAGERS
Innovate Adminster
Develop Maintain
Inspire Control
Long term view Short term view
Ask what and why Ask how and when
Originate Initiate

Do the right things! Do things right!


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The roles
&
activities of leadership
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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (a)

Interpersonal
roles
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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (b)
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Source: Adapted from Henry Mintzberg, “Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation,” Management
Science, 18 (October 1971): B97-B110.

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Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (c)
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Activities of successful and
effective leaders
What do managers do?
• Effective communication
– Exchanging information
– Handling paperwork
• Traditional management
– Planning
– Decision making
– Controlling
• Human resource management
– Motivating /reinforcing
– Discipline /punishing
– Managing conflict
– Staffing
– Training / development
• Networking
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– Interacting with outsiders


– Socializing /politicking

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What do successful real
manger do ?
• Networking -19%
• Traditional management – 32%
• Human resouce-20%
• Routine commnucation-29%
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What do effective real
manger do?
• Getting the job done through high
quantity and quality standard of
performance
• Getting the job done through people
requiring their satisfaction and
commitment
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Leadership skills
• Cultural flexibility
• Communication skills
• HRD skills
• Creativity
• Self –management of learning
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Ten skills must for an effective
managers
• Verbal communication
• Managing time and stress
• Managing individual decision
• Recognizing ,defining and solving problems
• Motivating and influencing
• Delegating
• Setting goal an articulating a vision
• Self awareness
• Team building
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• Managing conflict

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Whetten and Cameron model of Personal
skills
•Coping with stressors
•Managing time
•Delegating
2.
Managing
stress

1.
Developing 3.
self awareness Solving problems

•Determining values & priorities


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•Using the rational approach


•Identify cognitive style •Using the creative approach
•Assessing attitude toward change •Fostering innovation in others

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Whetten and Cameron model of Interpersonal skills
•Gaining power
•Exercising influence
•Empowering others

5.
Gaining
power &
influence
•Coaching 4. 6. •Diagnosing
•Counseling Communicating poor performance
Motivating •Creating a
•Listening supportively 7.
motivating environment
Others •Rewarding
Managing
accomplishments
conflict
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•Identifying causes
•Selecting appropriate strategies
•Resolving confrontation

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Other techniques for Leadership
effectives
• Training
• Job design
• Behavioral management
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Thank you
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