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CONSTRUCTION OF RAILWAY OVERBRIDGE
AT DOMORIA PULL, JALANDHAR

BY ISHAN KAUSHAL
ROLL NO. 1040252
Æ     Æ  !  "#Æ
Details of the Project

? Client Municipal Corporation, Jalandhar


? Construction agency M/S Gammon India Ltd.
? Type of contract Item rate
? Total length of ROB 1.65 Km
? Cost of the project Rs 20 crores
? Contract period 15 months
? Starting date 28--06
28 06--2004

Due to some technical and financial constraints it is being delayed.


6ey Plan Of the Project
Company Profile
? Gammon India Limited is one of the leading construction
companies in India today.
? The company was established by late Mr. J. C. Gammon in
1919 as a firm of Civil Engineers & Contractor.
? From arch and bowstring girder bridges to balanced
cantilever, prestressed concrete and latest cable
cable--stayed
bridges, Gammon's capabilities cover the entire spectrum of
technological advances in bridge engineering.
? Besides designing and building bridges, Gammon has
achieved perfection in the techniques of launching,
underwater concreting development of supporting equipment
like pneumatic caissons, winches, cables, grouting
machinery etc., and building of enabling structures.
When I joined«.

? All the piling work was over.

? All the pile caps were cast except the one at location DPG7.

? All the pier, pier caps, pedestals were cast except at the
location DPG7.

? Filling of the backfill in the ramp portions had been done.


Training Schedule

11 June to 16 June Understood the Work


Culture.
18 June to 21 June Started Collecting Data
about the Project
21 June to 21 July Estimation Work And
Supervision of Site (Pile
cap)
23 July to 10 dec Casting yard (Supervision
Of pretensioned I-
I-Girders)
Some Important Specifications
? Number of arms : 7(A,B,C,D,E,FO AND FI)
? Total number of piles : 248
? Type of piles : Bored cast in-
in-situ
? Diameter and depth of piles : 1000 mm and 20 m resp.
? Total number of piers : 51
? Number of abutments : 6
? Type of superstructure : In-
In-situ deck with pre-
pre-
tensioned I girders and
RCC/post--tensioned box
RCC/post
girders
? Number of box girders spans : 10
? Earth work involved : 10,000 m³

? Steel used : Fe 415 and Fe 500
? High Tension strands (HT strands) : 15.2 mm diameter (7 ply)
? Bearings : POT PTFE
? Number of I girders : 144
Equipments Used at Site

Needle type vibrator (60 mm dia) Concrete pump (56 m³/hr)


m³/hr)

Gantry girder ( 60 ton) Transit mixer (7 m³


m³ capacity)
Equipments Used at Site

Slump Cone JCB Prestressing


Pump

Batching Plant
Equipments Used at Site

Pipeline Bucket (0.5 m


m³³ capacity)

Hydra crane( 3 ton)


PROJECT NO. 1

SUPERVISION OF SUBSTRUCTURE
Foundation : Piles

? Piles are long slender members that carry and transfer the
load of the structure to the ground located at some depth
below the ground and the earth surrounding the piles.

? Bored cast in
in--situ friction RCC piles of diameter 1000 mm.

? M35 grade of concrete was used at our site.

? Average depth of the piles was 20 m.


Estimation of Steel in Piles

Steel quantity
Dia of one pile = 1000 mm
Clear cover = 75 mm
Dia of the bar used for pile rings = 10 mm
Dia of pile ring, d = 1000
1000-- 2*75 = 850 mm
Circumference of pile ring = ɉ*d = ɉ*850 =2.669 m
No. of rings in the pile = 100
So total length of 10 mm bar = 100*2.669 = 266.9 m

Vertical bars
Diameter = 20 mm
Length of one single bar from top to bottom of the pile = 20.9 m
Number of the bars = 15
So total length = 15*20.9 = 313.5 m
Total weight of steel used in one pile = 10²/162266.9 + 20²/162*313.5
= 938.8 kg
For pile group having 4 piles total weight of steel = 4*938.8 = 3755.3 kg
For pile group having 6 piles total weight of steel = 6*938.8 = 5632.96 kg
Pile Cap
? Structural elements that tie a group of piles together.

? Used to transmit forces from piers to the pile foundations.

? At my site I studied the construction of the pile cap named


DPG7..
DPG7

? It was constructed to connect è piles.

? Concrete mix of M35 was used in the pile cap.

? Total of è3.2 m³ of concrete was used in this pile cap.

? Height of the pile cap was 1.75 m.


m.
Plan of the pile cap DPG7
Reinforcement Detailing of the Pile Cap
Elevation of the Pile Cap
Bar bending Schedule

      Type



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&
½ ½  ½ '

  ½½ '

( ( ½ ½½ '

) ) ½ ½ '

  ½   *  +
 '

  ½    
Estimation of the Pile Cap DPG7

Shuttering quantity of pile cap


Dimensions of the pile cap are shown in the figure
Height of the pile cap = 1.75 m
Area of shuttering = 2*1.75*(3388+3388+847+847+2998+3000+790)
= 54.403 m²

Concrete quantity
Volume of concrete to be used = ((7.693*7)-
((7.693*7)-0.5929)*1.75
= 93.2 m³

Concrete Mix Proportion for Pile Cap

? Different grades of concrete were used for the bridge


construction.
? M35 was used for the pile cap.
? Steel used : Fe 415.
415.
? Cement used : Vikram cement (OPC 53 grade)
? Aggregates used : 10 mm, 20 mm and sand.
? Admixture used : FORSOC CONPLAST SP 430.
Cement W/C Water Sand 20 mm 10 mm Admixture
Ratio
400 0.37 148 684 5è2.5 5è2.5 0.4
kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m
1 0.37 1.36 1.è4 1.3 0.001

Cement : Sand : Coarse Aggregate = 1 : 1.36 : 3.24


Pier Cap
Estimation of the pier cap

All dimensions in mm
Concrete quantity
Ar1 = 9477600 mm² = 9.477 m²
Ar2 = 5.4882 m²
Total area = 9.477+5.4882 = 14.96 m²
Thickness of the pier cap = 3600 mm
So total volume of concrete to be used = 14.96*3.6 = 53.8 m³
All dimensions in mm

Shuttering quantity
A1 = 2*14.96 = 29.92 m²
A2 = 4203.4*3600 = 15.132 m²
A3 = 600*3600*2 = 4.32 m²
A4 = 3018.87*3600 = 10.868 m²
A5 = 100*3600*2 = 0.72 m²
Total surface area for shuttering = A1+A2+A3+A4+A5 = 60.96 m²
PROJECT NO. 2

SUPERVISION OF THE
SUPERSTRUCTURE
Pretensioned I-
I-Girder
Cross section of the I-
I-girder
Methodology for the construction of I-
I-Girder:

1. Preparing the shuttering:

$ Ý



Bearing plates Dowel bars


  Ý 




 $ 

 $

Groove made for bearings


2. Lowering of the reinforcement cage:
Gantry girder : 60 ton and 35 ton

Æ 




3. Cable threading:

$
$

4. Stressing:
Least count of the pump : 5 kg/cm
kg/cm².
².
5. Closing of the side shutters
6. Concreting:
Automatic batching plant
Needle type vibrator : 60 mm dia
 
  
Concrete pump : 56 m³/hr
m³/hr    

Cement W/C Water Sand 20 mm 10 mm Admixture


Ratio
435 0.30 130.5 652 741 4è4 0.8%
kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m kg/m³³
kg/m

7. Deshuttering:
After 24 hrs
 $ 

8. Destressing
Using the grinder.
9. Lifting of the girders
10. Curing # 
For next 25 days at least.   
 
 

 
   

Prestressed Concrete

Prestressed concrete is basically concrete in which internal stresses of a


suitable magnitude and distribution are introduced so that the stresses
resulting from external loads are counteracted to a desired degree.

Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. The tensile strength


of concrete is about one
one--tenth of its compressive strength. Since concrete is
weak in tension, an R.C.C beam at times develops minute cracks in concrete
on tension side of the beam, even when the stress developed in tensile steel
is much less than its permissible value.
Prestressing has two types:-
types:-
1. Pre--tensioning.
Pre
2. Post--tensioning.
Post

Pre-tensioning:
Pre-
In the pretensioning the tendons are first tensioned between rigid anchor
blocks cast on the ground or in a column or unit mould type tensioning bed,
prior to the casting of concrete in the moulds. The tendons comprising
individual wires or strands are stretched with constant or variable
eccentricity with tendon anchorage at one end and jacks at the other end.
With the forms in place, the concrete is cast around the stressed tendon.

Post-tensioning:
Post-
In post tensioning the concrete units are first cast by incorporating ducts or
grooves to house the tendons. When the concrete attains sufficient strength,
the high tensile wires are tensioned by means of means of jack bearing on
the end face of the member and anchored by wedges or nuts
Methodology for pre-
pre-tensioning of the I-
I-girder:

1. Laying of cables
2. PVC pipes are used for debonding of the cables.
3. Cables are locked using the wedges and barrels. These wedges and
barrels provide such arrangement that cable can come out of it, but
can¶t go back.
4. Stressing
  $
$
,



$ $


 

Stressing report:

GIRDER MARK P1- P1-P2 (10 AND 11)


For strand NO. 1 TO 21
ELONGATION (mm) MIN. = 292 MODIFIED= 307 MAX. = 322
PRESSURE (kg/cm²) MIN. = 382 MODIFIED= 402 MAX. = 422

For strand No. 22 and 23


ELONGATION (mm) MIN. = 273 MODIFIED= 287 MAX. = 301
PRESSURE (kg/cm²) MIN. = 382 MODIFIED= 402 MAX. = 422
PRESSURE 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 402 Elg Reqd 100 reading Total Elg Zero correction Net Elg
(kg/cm²)

Strand no. 1 20 40 75 115 160 190 235 265 300 307 75 225 85 310

2 20 50 75 120 160 190 240 270 310 307 75 225 85 310

3 15 50 85 120 160 195 235 270 315 307 85 230 75 305

4 20 48 80 120 155 190 220 270 310 307 80 230 75 305

5 10 25 65 105 145 180 225 260 300 307 65 235 80 315

6 20 45 80 120 160 200 245 225 320 307 80 240 80 320

7 20 80 120 160 200 235 280 320 360 307 120 240 80 320

8 20 70 100 140 175 225 265 310 360 307 100 260 65 325

9 20 65 105 145 180 225 260 305 350 307 105 245 75 320

10 32 70 115 150 185 230 280 320 365 307 115 250 70 320

11 25 75 110 155 195 230 275 310 345 307 110 235 85 320

12 25 50 90 125 165 200 245 285 320 307 90 230 75 305

13 20 55 75 130 155 200 245 280 315 307 75 240 80 320

14 20 40 75 115 150 190 230 265 305 307 75 230 75 305

15 25 55 100 135 175 210 250 285 330 307 100 230 75 305

16 10 50 90 130 175 200 240 280 315 307 90 225 85 310

17 25 65 100 140 180 215 255 295 330 307 100 230 80 310

18 20 80 120 155 200 240 280 320 355 307 120 235 80 315

19 35 80 115 155 190 235 275 310 350 307 115 235 75 310

20 25 75 115 150 190 230 270 310 350 307 115 235 75 310

21 25 65 105 145 185 225 265 300 335 307 105 230 80 310

22 25 50 82 120 150 185 220 255 305 287 85 220 68 288

23 25 40 75 105 140 175 210 245 295 287 75 220 65 285


Box Girder

I-girders can be used only for the spans smaller than 20-
20-25 m or which are
not curved. For curved spans and spans which are greater than 20-
20-25 m, box
girders are used.
Cross--section of the box girder near the support
Cross
Methodology for the construction of post-
post-tensioned box girder:

1. Constructing the temporary foundation for the temporary structure for


supporting the box girder shuttering.
2. Erecting the trestles.
3. Placing the shuttering.
4. Placing the reinforcement.
5. Passing the cables through sheathing pipes.
6. Concreting.
7. Curing.
8. Constructing the deck slab.
9. Post--tensioning.
Post
10. Grouting.
11. Removing the trestles.
Safety Requirements

1. Training the workers.


2. Providing the first aid.
3. List of nearby hospitals.
4. Safety manual.
5. Banners.
6. Using the safety equipments.
7. Providing the vehicle.
Problems Faced at Site

1. Sometime the strength of the girders didn¶t come on time.


Remedy::
Remedy
First off all, aggregates were washed before using them. It would
increase the rate of bond formation between the aggregates and
cement.
also if use a higher grade of cement, I will help in early achievement
of strength.
2. While transporting the concrete by transit mixers, traffic created a big
problem.
Remedy::
Remedy
Three transit mixers were used at time to reduce the time gap.
Problems Faced at Site

3. Power failure and batching plant failure delayed the processes.


Remedy::
Remedy
Proper and regular maintenance helped to reduce this problem.
4. While shifting the II--girders, traffic was a problem.
Remedy::
Remedy
the girders were shifted at night to avoid this problem.
5. In summer days, water for curing dried too early.
Remedy:
Hessian cloth was used to retain water for longer period. Continuous
curing was also done.
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