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EOS Principle

ZTE Corporation
Transmission Course Team

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Contents
• EOS System Structure

• Ethernet Frame Encapsulation

• Real Concatenation and Virtual Concatenation

• L2 Switch Principle

• Spanning Tree Protocol

• Trunk

• EOS Networks and Applications

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EOS System Structure

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EOS System Structure


SDH OL

SDH OL
Card

Card
STM-N SDH Cross Connect STM-N

Framer

Ethernet
L2 Switch
Transparent

PDH/SDH interfaces 、 PoS (cascading or not) 、 Ethernet Interface


( 10M/100M/GE )
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Adaptation Process of Ethernet and SDH Data

IEEE 802.3 MAC frame

PPP/LAPS/GFP protocol packing

Rate adaptation

SONET/SDH frame

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STM NNInterface
STM
--

Interface
OO
HH
RR
SS
M

OO
HH
SS
EOS Functional Model

Cross
CrossConnect
Connect

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VC
VCMapping
Mapping
PPP/LAPS/GFP
PPP/LAPS/GFP
Encapsulation
Encapsulation

EOS
L2
L2Switch
Switch
Ethernet
EthernetInterface
Interface
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Ethernet Frame Encapsulation

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Encapsulation Protocol of EOS


IEEE 802.3 MAC

PPP/LAPS/GFP
VC12/VC3/VC4 ZTE’s MSTP supports
Multiplex Section PPP, LAPS and GFP.
Regeneration Section
Physical Link

• Encapsulation Protocol stack realize point to point link


control, rate adjustment and cell delineation from Ethernet to
SDH.
• The Encapsulation Protocol includes PPP, LAPS and GFP

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Real Concatenation and Virtual


Concatenation

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Real Concatenation
NE supports STM-16 OL card with VC-4-4C functions
VC-4 VC-4 VC-4 VC-4 VC-4-4C VC-4 VC-4 VC-4 VC-4 VC-4-4C

TDM IP TDM ATM

STM-16

VC-4-4C 4×VC-4
STM-4

IP/ATM TDM

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Virtual Concatenation

VC-12

VC-12
Recieving
Sending

VC-12 SDH VC-12-NC


VC-12
. Network
. Delay process
.
VC-12

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Advantages of Virtual Concatenation

• Only require the source and end NEs to support virtual


concatenation, no requirement on those passed NEs.
• No need of adjacent VC-n, each VC can be sent
independently.
• Support delay process and multi-path transmission. Better for
utilizing network bandwidth.

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L2 Switching Principle

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Concept
• User (LAN) port: Ethernet ports used to link to the local LAN
• System (WAN) port: internal Ethernet ports link to SDH
• Share: service from several user ports occupy the bandwidth
of one system port.
• Convergence: service from several system ports occupy the
bandwidth of one user port.
LAN WAN LAN WAN

Convergence,
Share convergence rate - 4:1
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L2 Switching Principle
• L2 Switching is a kind of data-link equipment, which can read
the MAC address from the package and switch data according
to MAC address.
• Create MAC address table by static configuration or study the
source MAC address from the packages.
• Extract destination MAC address from the package and check
the MAC address table for its output ports. Found, send it to
the port, other wise flood to all ports except the source port.

LAN WAN MAC Port


0x02-11-30-fe-06-00 0x00
0x04-02-ff-00-01-f1 0x01
0x08-00-00-ff-03-08 0x02

MAC Address Table


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VLAN Format Based on 802.1Q

Des. Sour. 0x8100 Label Control Type/Lengt MAC client FCS


Add. Add. Information h

 0 x 8100 : Identifier for VLAN


 4 bytes of label control information

P P P C V V V V V V V V V V V V

 P - priority, 0~7
 C - 0: Ethernet; 1: token ring
 V - VID: 1 ~ 4094; 0: vacant VLAN ID; 4095: reserved; 1
by default
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Advantages of VLAN
• Limit broadcast domain: VLAN can divide the physical
network into different broadcast domains (VLAN domain) to
limit the data being exchanged between the ports of the same
VLAN only thereby preventing the waste of bandwidth.

• Limit broadcast storm: Broadcast storm in one VLAN will not


be sent to the ports out of this VLAN.

• Provide security firewall: Size and position of the accessing


and controlling group of the users are limited by the VLAN to
make resource be in a secured VLAN.

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Example of VLAN Application

Switch

Switch Switch Switch

VLAN#1 VLAN#2 VLAN#3 VLAN#1 VLAN#3

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Use VLAN to Create Virtual Data Network


Ethernet port
VB1 of MSTP

Ethernet port
of MSTP
VBn
VBn

Metropolitan
Area MSTP
Network
Ethernet port VB1
of MSTP

VB1 Ethernet port


of MSTP
VBn

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L2 Switching Mode

▪ Transparent Mode

Create port group of LAN port and WAN port. When switching,
screen MAC address and VLAN ID and data are only forwarded
in the port group.

This mode can realize transparent transmission of all kinds of


packages as physical channel.

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▪ VLAN Mode
When switching, forward data according to both MAC and
VLAN. Advantages of it are good for service safety. But when a
great deal VLAN are included in the service, need to configure
VLAN one by one.

▪ Bridge Mode (Default Mode)


When switching, screen VLAN, forward the packages according
to MAC address. Advantages of it is to save configuration
workload. Disadvantage is no guarantee to the service safety.

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▪ Virtual Channel Mode


When switching, screen MAC and forward data according to
VLAN. This mode support the packages having the same source
address come from different ports. At the same time, support
transparent transmission of packages of different protocol and
convergent service according to VLAN.

ZTE’s MSTP different switching modes can be changed


through the NMS. Different switching modes can fulfill
different need of operators.

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Virtual Bridge of MSTP (VLAN Mode)

▪ Access Mode – VLAN based on Ports

Access frames without VLAN Tag and add Pvid (based on ports)
to form their VLAN Tag. When service comes out of the port
with Pvid, take off the Pvid reverting it to the frame without
VLAN Tag.

Pvid is set through the NMS.

Using access mode, data are exchange according to MAC address


+ VLAN to realize VLAN based on ports

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continuation

▪ Trunk mode – VLAN based on ID Tagged

Access frames with VLAN Tag. Only access those frames


according with VLAN property of the port and filtrate those
unaccording VLAN frames.

Trunk mode support VLAN trunk of port, i.e. one port can be
included in several VLANs.

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Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

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Objective

• Bridge find a no loop subset (tree) automatically, ensuring


maximum continuity and preventing broadcast storm caused
by loop at the same time.

• Data are only forward or receive between those valid ports of


Spanning tree and will never be send to ports out of the
spanning tree.

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Trunking

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Trunk
• Trunk refer to binding several Ethernet ports together to form
a logical port.
• Advantages: enhance bandwidth of the link.

A B

200M

MSTP of ZTE can realize trunking of maximum four (4) FE ports.

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EOS Networks and Applications

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Ethernet Core Network

Star Network
• Suitable for convergence or
centralized service.
• Can provide rigid physical
bandwidth. Little delay, but big
consume of optical fiber.
• Require higher port convergence
rate of MSTP ports.

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SDH 设备( ECI )


8×2M

LA
LA LA LA LA LA LA LA
N7
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N8

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Train Network

• Suitable for distributed service.


More delay.
• Share bandwidth. High utilization.
Suitable for those network lacking
of fibers.

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Ring Network
• Have to start STP to prevent loop
• Have STP protection except physical protection.
• Have the same features as train network

Mixed Network
• Combination of the three (3) networks.

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