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# Introduction to Food Engineering

## Heat Transfer Mechanisms

 Mechanisms of heat loss from the human body and relative magnitudes for a resting person,

Thermal Conduction

 Qcond

dT ! k A dx

/m

## The Mechanisms of Heat Conduction in different phase of a substance

Thermal Conductivity, k

The variation of the thermal conductivity of various solids, liquids, and gases with temperature.

Thermal Diffusivity, E

## Heat Conducted E! Heat Stored k ! V Cp

/ sec

Thermal Convection

## Newtons Law of Cooling

 Qconv ! h As Ts  Tg
h = convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 As = surface area, m2 Ts = surface temperature, T = temperature of the fluid,

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

 ! IW emit
 

4 s s

I = emissivity of the surface W= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant, 5.6710-8 W/m2 K4 As = surface area, m2 Ts = surface temperature,

## The Net Rate of Radiation Heat Transfer between two Surfaces

 Qrad ! IW As  T T
4 s

4 surr

Heat Loss from a person Consider a person standing in a breezy room at 20 . Determine the total rate of heat transfer from this person if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1.6 m2 and 29 , respectively, and the convection heat transfer coefficient is 6 W/m2 . Assume the emissivity of a person is I = 0.95.
 ! h As Ts  Tg conv ! W / m 2 o C .6 m 2 29  20)oC 6 1 ( ! 86.4 W
4  Qrad ! IWAs s4  Tsurr T

4 4

## Thermal Properties of Foods

Specific Heats Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity

Specific Heat
Specific heat is the quantity of heat that is gained or lost by a unit mass of product to accomplish a unit change in temperature, without a change in state.

Q Cp ! m ((T )
where Cp = specific heat, kJ/kg Q = heat gained or lost, kJ m = mass, kg (T = temperature change in the material,

Siebel (1892)

C p ! 0.837  3.349 X w
where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction. Charm (1978)

## C p ! 2.093 X f  1.256 X s  4.187 X w

where Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xs = the mass fraction of non-fat solids Xw = the mass fraction of water

## C p ! 1.424 X c  1.549 X p  1.675 X f

 0.837 X a  4.187 X w
where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water

## Choi and Okos (1986)

n

C p ! C pi
i !1

where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food Cpi = the specific heat of the ith component  Table A2.9 gives the specific heat of pure food components as a function of temperature.

## Estimation for the Specific Heat of Various Components

Thermal Conduction

 Qcond

dT ! k A dx

/m

## Factors affect the thermal conductivity

Temperature the state of the substance chemical composition Physical (Cellular) structure Density Moisture Content Moisture migration Heat conduction is usually interpreted either as molecular interchange of kinetic energy or electron drift (the mobility of free electrons)

Sweat (1974) for fruits and vegetables with a water content greater than 60%

k ! 0.148  0.493 X w
where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction.

Sweat (1975) for meats and fish, temperature 0~60 , water content 60~80%, wet basis

k ! 0.08  0.52 X w

Sweat (1986)

## k ! 0.25 X c  0.155 X p  0.16 X f

 0.135 X a  0.58 X w
where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water  The thermal conductivity of pure water at 25 0.606 W/(m )

is

## Choi and Okos (1986)

n

k ! ki X i
i !1

where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food ki = the thermal conductivity of the ith component

Thermal Diffusivity, E

/ sec