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Introduction to Food Engineering

Chapter 4 Heat Transfer in Food Processing

Heat Transfer Mechanisms


Conduction Convection Radiation

 Mechanisms of heat loss from the human body and relative magnitudes for a resting person,

Thermal Conduction

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

 Qcond

dT ! k A dx

k = thermal conductivity, W/m A = cross section area, m2 dT/dx = temperature gradient,

/m

The Mechanisms of Heat Conduction in different phase of a substance

Thermal Conductivity, k

The variation of the thermal conductivity of various solids, liquids, and gases with temperature.

Thermal Diffusivity, E

Heat Conducted E! Heat Stored k ! V Cp

/ sec

Thermal Convection

Newtons Law of Cooling

 Qconv ! h As Ts  Tg
h = convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 As = surface area, m2 Ts = surface temperature, T = temperature of the fluid,

Thermal Radiation

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

 ! IW emit
 

4 s s

I = emissivity of the surface W= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant, 5.6710-8 W/m2 K4 As = surface area, m2 Ts = surface temperature,

The Net Rate of Radiation Heat Transfer between two Surfaces

 Qrad ! IW As  T T
4 s

4 surr

Heat Loss from a person Consider a person standing in a breezy room at 20 . Determine the total rate of heat transfer from this person if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1.6 m2 and 29 , respectively, and the convection heat transfer coefficient is 6 W/m2 . Assume the emissivity of a person is I = 0.95.
 ! h As Ts  Tg conv ! W / m 2 o C .6 m 2 29  20)oC 6 1 ( ! 86.4 W
4  Qrad ! IWAs s4  Tsurr T

! 0.95 .67 v 10 8 W / m 2 K 4 .6 m 2 29  273  20  273 K 4 5 1 ! 81.7 W


4 4

Thermal Properties of Foods


Specific Heats Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity

Specific Heat
Specific heat is the quantity of heat that is gained or lost by a unit mass of product to accomplish a unit change in temperature, without a change in state.

Q Cp ! m ((T )
where Cp = specific heat, kJ/kg Q = heat gained or lost, kJ m = mass, kg (T = temperature change in the material,

Siebel (1892)

C p ! 0.837  3.349 X w
where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction. Charm (1978)

C p ! 2.093 X f  1.256 X s  4.187 X w


where Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xs = the mass fraction of non-fat solids Xw = the mass fraction of water

Heldman and Singh (1981)

C p ! 1.424 X c  1.549 X p  1.675 X f

 0.837 X a  4.187 X w
where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water

Choi and Okos (1986)


n

C p ! C pi
i !1

where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food Cpi = the specific heat of the ith component  Table A2.9 gives the specific heat of pure food components as a function of temperature.

Estimation for the Specific Heat of Various Components

Thermal Conduction

Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction

 Qcond

dT ! k A dx

k = thermal conductivity, W/m A = cross section area, m2 dT/dx = temperature gradient,

/m

Factors affect the thermal conductivity


Temperature the state of the substance chemical composition Physical (Cellular) structure Density Moisture Content Moisture migration Heat conduction is usually interpreted either as molecular interchange of kinetic energy or electron drift (the mobility of free electrons)

Sweat (1974) for fruits and vegetables with a water content greater than 60%

k ! 0.148  0.493 X w
where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction.

Sweat (1975) for meats and fish, temperature 0~60 , water content 60~80%, wet basis

k ! 0.08  0.52 X w

Sweat (1986)

k ! 0.25 X c  0.155 X p  0.16 X f

 0.135 X a  0.58 X w
where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water  The thermal conductivity of pure water at 25 0.606 W/(m )

is

Choi and Okos (1986)


n

k ! ki X i
i !1

where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food ki = the thermal conductivity of the ith component

Thermal Diffusivity, E

Heat Conducted E! Heat Stored k ! V Cp

/ sec