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Image Processing

Basic Concepts Of


Photo Courtesy:TemplatesWise

In electrical engineering and computer science image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it. Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image processing also are possible. This presentation is about general techniques that apply to digital image processing. The acquisition of images (producing the input image in the first place) is referred to as imaging.

Image processing can be broken down into several subcategories, including:

Image compression, image enhancement, image filtering, image distortion, image display and coloring. Before enhancement , filtering & others we first need to know how image Is represented in computer. Images are signals which can be represented by periodic functions by Fourier Transform. 1.Image 2.Magnitude in FT 3.Phase in FT 1 2 3

After getting these transformations , these are modulated to get The desired result.You cant even imagine what a fourier analysis Offers the flexibility to change an image. A little mathematical analysis. The 2D Fourier Transform of a Digital Image

Let I(r,c) be a single-band digital image with r rows and c Columns.Then I(r,c) has Fourier representationR-1 c-1 I(r,c)= f(u,v)e^[i2 (ur/R+vc/C)] u=0 v=0 Where R-1 C-1 f(u,v)=1/RC I(r,c)e^[-i2 (ur/R+vc/C)] r=0 c=0 R & C FOURIER CO-EFFICIENTS.

Anyway , going deep into those mathematics is beyond scope. Moving onto some processing techniques , starting on with

IMAGE FILTERINGImage FILTERING is useful for noise reduction and edge enhancement.Types of filters usedMEAN FILTERS(Convolution Filters)-These Filtering methods are based upon the transformation of the image into its scale or spatial frequency components using the Fourier transform. The spatial domain filters or the convolution filters are generally classed as either high-pass (sharpening) or as low-pass (smoothing) filters. GAUSSIAN FILTERSThey weigh pixels based on their distance from the center of the convolution filter. In particular,this does a decent job of blurring noise while preserving features of the image.

Effect of mean filters

Effect of Gaussian filters

Image Enhancements----------Image Enhancement techniques are instigated for making satellite imageries more informative and helping to achieve the goal of image interpretation. The term enhancement is used to mean the alteration of the appearance of an image in such a way that the information contained in that image is more readily interpreted visually in terms of a particular need. The image enhancement techniques are applied either to single-band images or separately to the individual bands of a multiband image set. Density Slicing Density Slicing is the mapping of a range of contiguous grey levels of a single band image to a point in the RGB color cube. Linear Contrast Stretch This technique involves the translation of the image pixel values from the observed range to the full range of the display device(generally 0-255, which is the range of values representable in an 8bit display devices.

Contrast Streching

Histogram Equalisation

The underlying principle of histogra equalisation is straightforward and simple , it is assumed that each level the displayed image should contain an approximately equal number of pixel values , so that the histogram o these displayed values is almost uniform . The objective of the histogram equalisation is to spread the range of pixel values present in the input image over the range of the display device .

Image Histograms

Edge Detection--- One of the most important uses of image processing is edge detection. Edge detection algorithms typically proceed in three or four steps: Filtering: cut down on noise Enhancement: amplify the difference between edges and non-edges Detection: use a threshold operation Localization (optional): estimate geometry of edges beyond pixels. Techniques usedSOBEL OPERATOR- A popular gradient magnitude computation is the Sobel operator:We can then compute the magnitude of the vector (sx, sy). Sx & sy are matrices. LAPLACIAN- An equivalent measure of the second derivative in 2D is the Laplacian:Using the arguments to compute the gradient filters, we can derive a Laplacian filter.



Laplacian (+128)

Original + Laplacian

Original - Laplacian

Image Distortion---------A thought may come that why distortion is required!!! Image distortion is applied in image transformation regions To produce effects,blurring,etc.All are image distortion related Topics where original image is transformed to get desired result. There are enough topics in image distortions to discuss for a day. Some important topics are.. -Texture Transfer -Blurring Texture Transfer - Texture transfer involves correspondence map of images, which is spatial map of some corresponding quantity over both the texture source image and a controlling target image. That quantity could include image intensity, blurred image intensity, local image orientation angles, or other derived quantities.

Source texture

Texture Transfer

Target image

BLURRING------Convolution with fourier analysis of the actual function of image Can be used to blur.For another convolution function Gaussian Exponential function gives descent results.Blurring is actually edge distortion.

g ( x ) = f ( x ) h( x )


1 x2 1 h( x ) = exp 22 2

h(x) is Gaussian exponential Eqn.f(x) is fourier transform of Image in frequency domain.


Image coloring. One practically attractive method of Image Coloring implies performing three independent transformations on the intensity of any input pixel.The results are fed separately Into the red green and blue monitor channels producing a Composite image whose colors are modulated by the Transformation functions.

LAST TOPIC:IMAGE COMPRESSION. Image Compressions are of 2 types Lossless No data is lost during compression. Very Limited compression ratio. Lossy -Some data is permanently lost during compression. Done using psycho-visual analysis. JPEG Image Compression Technique(Lossy) JPEG algorithm uses 4 stepsPreprocess-Conversion of R,B,C color channels to YCbCr space. Transformation-Discrette Cosine Transform is done to change the domain of the image. Quantisation-Elements near to zero are converted to zero. Encoding-Advanced Huffman coding is done to remove redundancy. I

Photo Courtesy-Yoyogi Park, Tokyo, October 1999. Photo by Alan Peters.


Airport X-ray scanner: ordinary luggage and one with a block of simulated plastic explosives. Pseudocolor image obtained with the first set of transformation functions: explosive and background have different intensity levels and are mapped to different colors. The block, however, is quite uniform. Explosives and the bag were mapped by similar transformations: The observer can see through the explosives.

CONCLUSIONImage processing is a huge topic to explore and new additions Are done everyday.Image processing is applied to almost every Field like medical science,space exploration,metallurgy,world of fashion,cinematography,etc.Research in this field requires extensive Knowledge in complex mathematics and analysis.

Finally , thank you all for your patience to sit through this. Ending this slide with the pioneer-Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier .

Deserves An Applause.

Had idea (1807):

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

Any periodic function can be rewritten as a weighted sum of Sines and Cosines of different frequencies.

Dont believe it?

Neither did Lagrange, Laplace, Poisson and other big wigs Not translated into English until 1878!

But its true!

called Fourier Series Possibly the greatest tool used in Image Processing