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Car Modeling (Automatic Transmission) using Simulink

Susilo Wibowo Electrical Engineering Universitas Surabaya

No loss in the Gear transmission. Straight road. No slip factor on the tire. Torque curve is linear.

BMW 550i

Engine Torque

List of Force
Aerodynamic Force Mass Inertia Force Tangential component of Gravity Wheel Force

Wheel Force
FW = T. Gr . FDr / rW FW : Wheel Force T : Torsi mesin Gr : Gear ratio FDr : Final Drive ratio rW : Wheel radius

Other equations
Acceleration a = v = (Fw + Fm + Fd + Fh) / m Velocity v = a dt = v0 + a.t Displacement D = v dt = (v0 + a.t) dt = v0.t + .a.t2 Engine speed (in rpm) s = 60.v. Gr.FDr / 2. .rw

Aerodynamic Force

Fd = - .Cd.A. .v2
v squa re 5 ca r spe e d

2 D ra g coe fficie nt 1 A ir d e nsity G a in 4 ca r width 3 ca r he ight P ro duct 0 .5 1 D ra g Force

Cd: drag coeffecient : atmosphere density

A : projection area v : velocity

Mass Inertia Force Fm = - m.a

1 2 Whe e l orce 3

4 Ca r m a ss ine rtia T ota l m a ss (Kg)

3 Acce le ra ti

m : mass a : acceleration

V e locit (m /s)

All orce

Hill orce

Di i e

Inte gra tor

Inte gra tor1

l a ce m e nt

1 s

1 s

Ne t

Dra g orce

4 e

Tangential component of Gravity (Road slope) (Fh)

2 T otal m ass

1 S lope S quare 100 100 % S quare1 9.8 G ravitation constanta Add sqrt M ath Function Divide2 P roduct 1 Hill Force

rW = Rr + H = (1/2.Rd)/2.54 + AR.tW /105)

100000 C n sta n t

T ire w i th 2

0 .5 . 1 Gai 1 .5 4 a n t1 Gai

Rr : tire radius Rd : tire diameter tW : tire width

% '

H : Sidewall height AR : aspect ratio

( (

% !   ' &



ia m e te r




w ll





A sp e ct ra ti





1 1 Ti i ( )

Forces (main process)

1 Net

2 W he e l 3

o rce

1 s Di i e

1 s In te g ra to r1

A ll

o rce 4

C a r m a ss in e rtia

T o ta l m a ss (K g )

V e l city (m /s)

A cce le ra ti n

H ill

o rce

In te g ra to r

D isp la ce m e n t

2 1 3

D ra g

o rce

4 rce

0 0

Engine speed (in rpm)

3 T ire radius

/7 Gain1 2 ar Speed m/s

6 5 8

T ire 3.38 Final drive ratio Differential

60 1 Gear Gear1 Gain


1 En ine speed RPM

6 5

Other Simulink blocks (manual gear selection)

1 Gear 4 .1 7 1 st G e a r 2 .3 4 2 nd G e a r 1 .5 2 3 rd G e a r 1 .1 4 4 th G e a r 0. 7 5 th G e a r 1 G e a r ra tio

th G e a r



G e a r R a tio

e le ctio n

Other Simulink blocks (Automatic gear selection)

A cce le ra tio n 1 1 flo o r

S pe e d2 G e a r

.1 7

1 st G e a r 2 .3

2 nd G e a r 1 .5 2 3 rd G e a r

1 .1

th G e a r 0 .8 7

5 th G e a r 0 .6 9 6 th G e a r

A ctu a l G e a r R a tio 1 Gear G e a r R a tio S e le ctio n

S p e e d km /h

R o u n d in F u n ctio n

Air de nsity 1 .2 2 5 Dra g coe fficie nt 0 .2 9 Ca r he ight (m ) 1 .4 8

57. 4 M a x spe e d

Air density Drag coefficient Drag orce E ngine torque Dra g

car height car width car speed

Ca r width (m ) 1 .8 5

pe e d conve rsion 3.

Drag orce

Velocity (m/s)

Engine Torque

Wheel orce Wheel orce

Displacement Displa ce m e nt

RP M 2 T orque Engine speed (RPM)

Tire radius Ge a r subsyste m Tire radi s (m)

1 T hrottle P roduct Hill orce 5 Slope Hill orce Total mass M a in P roce ss Hill orce subsyste m Total mass (Kg) Net orce Ne t orce

Acceleration Acce le ra tion

Car Speed (m/s)

Rim diameter

1800 T ota l m a ss (Kg)

Tire radius

Gear ratio

Aspect ratio

Tire width

Clock S pe e d VS tim e

Ge a r S e le ction Ge a r 1

Gear ratio

T ire 225 width Aspe ct 50 ra tio


Rim dia m e te r


T ire subsyste m

S lope

Actua l S pe e d subsyste m

Gear ratio

Complete Simulink (manual gear)


Dra g orce ca lcula tion

S pe e d (Km /h)

Complete Simulink (Automatic Gear)

Drag Force Engine T orque

Drag Force calcul tion

Drag coefficient car height car width car speed


Car height (m ) 1.4 8

M x speed

Car width (m ) 1.85


Drag Force

Velocity (m/s)


Engine Torque

heel Force

heel Force

Displ cement Displ cem ent

RPM 2T orque

Tire radius 0 Slope

Hill Force

Acceleration Acceleration

Engine speed (RPM)

Tire radius (m)


Total m ss ( g) Hill Force Total m ss

Rim di meter

T otal m ss ( )

Aspect ratio

Car Speed (m/s)

Tire width

Tire radius



Aspect ratio


Autom tic G ear Selection

T ire 225 width


Rim di m eter

Speed (km/h)


Actu l Speed subsystem

1800 T ire subsystem

M in Process

Hill Force subsystem

G ear subsystem

Net Force Net Force

Clock Distance vs T im e Speed vs T im e

Speed conversion

Air density 1.225 Drag coefficient


Air density

Speed ( m /h)

Complete Simulink (Autocruise Control)

ir density


ra coefficient car height car idth


Brake -1


car speed


in in

Tire radius ( )

n ine speed (

ill orce

i dia eter

ruise speed

Total ass

ctual speed

spect ratio

Tire idth


ar peed ( /s)

Tire radius





ar 100 speed

spect 50 ratio


uto atic ear election

` `h

Tire 225 idth

i dia eter

peed (k /h)


Total ass ( g)


ruise control

ctual peed subsyste

Tire subsyste

ill orce subsyste

ain rocess

lock istance vs Ti e peed vs Ti e

r q

ear subsyste

Total ass ( g)

et orce

et orce

u w

Tire radius

ill orce





n ine Torque

heel orce

heel orce

isplace ent

isplace ent






elocity ( /s)


peed conversion



1.4 8

1.85 100.2 ax speed

peed (


ra orce calculation

t s ut s ut s v v t ` p ` pih d e e ` Y

ir density

ra coefficient

ar height ( ) ar idth ( )

Dabney, James B. and Harman, Thomas L., Mastering Simulink, Pearson Education Inc., 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gear_ratio http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_equatio n http://www.rri.se/popup/performancegrap hs.php?ChartsID=623