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# Car Modeling (Automatic Transmission) using Simulink

## Susilo Wibowo Electrical Engineering Universitas Surabaya

Assumption
No loss in the Gear transmission. Straight road. No slip factor on the tire. Torque curve is linear.

BMW 550i

Engine Torque

List of Force
Aerodynamic Force Mass Inertia Force Tangential component of Gravity Wheel Force

Wheel Force
FW = T. Gr . FDr / rW FW : Wheel Force T : Torsi mesin Gr : Gear ratio FDr : Final Drive ratio rW : Wheel radius

Other equations
Acceleration a = v = (Fw + Fm + Fd + Fh) / m Velocity v = a dt = v0 + a.t Displacement D = v dt = (v0 + a.t) dt = v0.t + .a.t2 Engine speed (in rpm) s = 60.v. Gr.FDr / 2. .rw

Aerodynamic Force

Fd = - .Cd.A. .v2
v squa re 5 ca r spe e d

## Mass Inertia Force Fm = - m.a

1 2 Whe e l orce 3

## 4 Ca r m a ss ine rtia T ota l m a ss (Kg)

3 Acce le ra ti

m : mass a : acceleration

V e locit (m /s)

All orce

Hill orce

Di i e

l a ce m e nt

1 s

1 s

Ne t

Dra g orce

4 e

## Tangential component of Gravity (Road slope) (Fh)

2 T otal m ass

1 S lope S quare 100 100 % S quare1 9.8 G ravitation constanta Add sqrt M ath Function Divide2 P roduct 1 Hill Force

## rW = Rr + H = (1/2.Rd)/2.54 + AR.tW /105)

100000 C n sta n t

T ire w i th 2

0 .5 . 1 Gai 1 .5 4 a n t1 Gai

% '

( (

% !   ' &

 

Ri

ia m e te r

%"

\$

  #

w ll

ig

"!

    

'

A sp e ct ra ti

Ti

(i

     

'

1 1 Ti i ( )

## Forces (main process)

1 Net

2 W he e l 3

o rce

1 s Di i e

1 s In te g ra to r1

A ll

o rce 4

C a r m a ss in e rtia

T o ta l m a ss (K g )

V e l city (m /s)

A cce le ra ti n

H ill

o rce

In te g ra to r

D isp la ce m e n t

10
2 1 3

D ra g

o rce

4 rce

0 0

77

6 5 8

4

6 5

## Other Simulink blocks (manual gear selection)

1 Gear 4 .1 7 1 st G e a r 2 .3 4 2 nd G e a r 1 .5 2 3 rd G e a r 1 .1 4 4 th G e a r 0. 7 5 th G e a r 1 G e a r ra tio

th G e a r

A@

0.

G e a r R a tio

e le ctio n

## Other Simulink blocks (Automatic gear selection)

A cce le ra tio n 1 1 flo o r

S pe e d2 G e a r

.1 7

1 st G e a r 2 .3

2 nd G e a r 1 .5 2 3 rd G e a r

1 .1

th G e a r 0 .8 7

5 th G e a r 0 .6 9 6 th G e a r

C
A ctu a l G e a r R a tio 1 Gear G e a r R a tio S e le ctio n

S p e e d km /h

R o u n d in F u n ctio n

## Air de nsity 1 .2 2 5 Dra g coe fficie nt 0 .2 9 Ca r he ight (m ) 1 .4 8

57. 4 M a x spe e d

## car height car width car speed

Ca r width (m ) 1 .8 5

pe e d conve rsion 3.

Drag orce

Velocity (m/s)

Engine Torque

## Wheel orce Wheel orce

Displacement Displa ce m e nt

## Tire radius Ge a r subsyste m Tire radi s (m)

1 T hrottle P roduct Hill orce 5 Slope Hill orce Total mass M a in P roce ss Hill orce subsyste m Total mass (Kg) Net orce Ne t orce

Rim diameter

## 1800 T ota l m a ss (Kg)

Gear ratio

Aspect ratio

Tire width

Clock S pe e d VS tim e

Ge a r S e le ction Ge a r 1

Gear ratio

## T ire 225 width Aspe ct 50 ra tio

17

Rim dia m e te r

Gear

T ire subsyste m

S lope

Actua l S pe e d subsyste m

Gear ratio

P P

## Dra g orce ca lcula tion

S pe e d (Km /h)

Drag Force Engine T orque

0.29

M x speed

Gear

Drag Force

Velocity (m/s)

3.

Engine Torque

heel Force

heel Force

## Displ cement Displ cem ent

RPM 2T orque

Hill Force

Acceleration Acceleration

Slope

Rim di meter

T otal m ss ( )

Aspect ratio

Tire width

Gear

Gear

Aspect ratio

50

17

Rim di m eter

Speed (km/h)

TS

M in Process

G ear subsystem

Speed conversion

292.8

Air density

Speed ( m /h)

ir density

1.225

0.29

Brake -1

ivide

car speed

%Throttle

in in

n ine speed (

ill orce

i dia eter

ruise speed

Total ass

ctual speed

spect ratio

Tire idth

lope

ar peed ( /s)

cceleration2

ear

distance

slope

ar 100 speed

spect 50 ratio

17

` `h

i dia eter

peed (k /h)

1800

Total ass ( g)

ear

ruise control

Tire subsyste

ain rocess

r q

ear subsyste

Total ass ( g)

et orce

et orce

u w

ill orce

2Torque

ax

cceleration

ax

n ine Torque

heel orce

heel orce

isplace ent

isplace ent

cceleration

`a

ear

ra

orce

elocity ( /s)

3.

peed conversion

ra

orce

1.4 8

## 1.85 100.2 ax speed

peed (

/h)

ra orce calculation

t s ut s ut s v v t ` p ` pih d e e ` Y

ir density

ra coefficient

ar height ( ) ar idth ( )

Reference
Dabney, James B. and Harman, Thomas L., Mastering Simulink, Pearson Education Inc., 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gear_ratio http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_equatio n http://www.rri.se/popup/performancegrap hs.php?ChartsID=623