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PRESENTATION

ON

PARTS OF SPEECH Presented by Group


Mr. Ashok Mhaske , Soil and Water Conservation Mr. Roshan Wakode , Land Resource Management Mr. Abhay Shirale, Soil Science Agricultural Chemistry Mr. Ashish Gajare, Land Resource Management Mr. Shivaji Waware, Plant Pathology Mr. Ninad Wagh, Soil Science Agricultural Chemistry

PARTS OF SPEECH

THERE ARE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Noun Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Preposition Conjunction Interjection

1. NOUN- Words that name people, places and things are called
nouns
TYPES OF NOUNS
1. (A) COMMON NOUN :- A word which names a person, place or thing in general is common noun e.g.- king, province, girl (B)PROPER NOUNS :- The name of particular, person or place e.g.-Raj, Rahul, Nagpur. 2. (A) CONCRETE NOUN Name of something that can be detected by the five senses. e.g. table, house (B) ABSTRACT NOUN Noun of some qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt, tasted, seen, heard or touched, e.g. honesty, pride, beauty, friendship. 3. COLLECTIVE NOUN Name of the group or collection of people, places and things. e.g. team, crowd, scientist 4. MASS NOUN Noun of things that can be counted like apples, Chairs, dollars, and also called as count noun.

FORMS OF NOUNS
1) SINGULAR Noun may be singular referring to one, e.g.-Boy, girl. 2) PLURAL Noun referring to more than one e.g. boys, girls. 3) POSSESSIVE Noun shows ownership, belonging, or that something is part of something else. They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (). That girls mother is my mother in law.

2. PRONOUNS
Words which used instead of noun (the names of people, places, and things) that have already been mentioned, or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader.

TYPES OF PRONOUNS
1.PERSONAL

PRONOUN e.g.- I, me, my, mine you, your, your ,we, us, our, ours PRONOUNS e.g.- Everybody should sit in his/her seat. Give her this.

2.INDEFINITE

3.DEMONSTRATIVE

PRONOUNS e.g. Give her the book.

4.REFLEXIVE

PRONOUNS e.g.- Rahul fixed the car himself PRONOUNS e.g.- He fixed the car himself. PRONOUNS e.g.- She taught her children to help one another PRONOUNS e.g.- Who is going to the dance next week?

5.EMPHATIC

6.RECIPROCAL

7.INTERROGATIVE

8.RELATIVE

PRONOUNS e.g.-The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank.

PRONOUNS ARE ALSO GROUPED BY PERSON

Person
First Person Second Person Third Person

Singular
me, my, mine you, your, yours

Plural
we, us, our, ours you, your, yours

he, him, his, his he, they, them, their, her, hers it. theirs

3. VERBS
A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb.

TYPES OF VERBS
ACTION VERBS show that something is being done or that something is happening. e.g. The children ran after the dog She drives very carefully when its snowing. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. e.g. She thought about what she had done STATE OF BEING VERBS - These non-action verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. They show that something or somebody exists. e.g. I am here. You will be successful. John is tired.

FORMS OF VERBS
AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word, called a verb phrase. Within a verb phrase, the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. Ex -I was looking to her. I will travel to Islamabad on the train. Did you write that poem. In the above sentences was, will and did are helping or auxiliary verb. looking, travel and write are the main verbs.

IRREGULAR VERB As you may have noticed, some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. These verbs are called irregular verbs..
PRESENT
Throw, Spring Feel Ring Drink

PAST
Threw Sprang Felt Rang Drank

PAST PARTICIPLE
Thrown Sprung felt Rung Drunk

REGULAR VERB Regular verb do not change their form with tences.
PRESENT
Cut Put Shut

PAST
Cut Put Shut

PAST PARTICIPLE
Cut Put Shut

4. ADVERBS:
A word that modifies the meaning of the verb or an adjective. Kinds of Adverb :I) Simple adverbs 1) Adverbs of time :- which shows when e.g. she will come now. 2) Adverbs of frequency :- which shows how often e.g. she sings daily. 3) Adverbs of place :- which shows where e.g. Go there. 4) Adverbs of manner :- which shows how e.g. Jenifer reads clearly. 5) Adverbs of degree or quality :- which shows how much e.g. Tina is too careless. 6)Adverbs affirmation :-Certainty of action e.g. Surely she will pass. 7) Adverbs of reason :- She therefore accepted his proposal.

II) Interrogative adverb :when adverbs are used in asking questions. e.g. Where is Indira. III) Relative adverb :It refers back to a noun as their antecedent e.g. This is the reason why I left job.

5. ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. Adjectives are usually placed before the nouns or pronouns they modify. However, adjectives can occasionally be found after nouns and pronouns. e.g.: The book is heavy. The tourists are American Types of Adjectives:Adjective of quality:show the kind or quality of the person or things e.g. Nagpur is beautiful city Adjective of quantity :shows how much of things e.g. Rajnikant has little intelligence. Adjective of number :- shows how many persons or things e.g. Hritik has six fingers in right hand

Demonstrative adjective :- point out which person or things e.g. I hate such things Interrogative adjective :- e.g. Whose book is this? Amphasizing adjective :- e.g. I saw it with my own eyes. Exclamatory adjective :- e.g. what an idea !

6. PREPOSITIONS :
Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when, where, how the action in a verb took place. Kinds of Prepositions :1) Simple Preposition :- at, in, off, on, out, to, up, with. e.g. There is a cow in the field. 2) Compound Preposition :- formed by prefixing prepositions like about, above, beside, between. e.g. Shriram seats beside Sita. 3) Phrase Preposition :- Group of words which used as single proposition. e.g. : They were standing in the middle of the football field. in the middle of is the preposition and in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase.

7. CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. A conjunction may join words, phrases or clauses.

TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS
CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun; an adjective with an adjective; and so on. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so. e.g. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together.

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions, but they are always used in pairs. not only/but also. e.g. Kareena is not only beautifull, but also clever.

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. Ex- Lightning struck the old farmhouse. The old farmhouse burned to the ground Although these could be two unconnected events, in this case,
  

The house burned down because it was struck by lightning. Lightning struck the old farmhouse; therefore, it burned to the ground. Lightning struck the old farmhouse; consequently, it burned to the ground.

List of some common conjunctive adverbs. Therefore, moreover, thus, consequently, as a result, however, nevertheless, hence, otherwise, besides, anyway, instead, meanwhile, furthermore, still.

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
Anot called subor i r roup of t or r oft n used as conjunctions. These are

onjunctions. They are used to join t o ideas which

otherwise would require two separate sentences. e. .-1.She s confused. She didnt sk ny questions. s confused, she didnt sk ny questions. ery. The truck dri ers stopped carefully.

Although she

2. The road as sli

The truck dri ers stopped carefully because the road as slippery.

8. INTERJECTIONS
Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. They are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. e. g. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow, did you see the grateful dead concert. Boy, that was a funny episode with Robin Williams.