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Prepared by: Mariane S.

Montemayor

BREAST CANCER
A cancer that starts in the cells of the breast in women and men

BREAST CANCER
Risk factors you cannot change GenderAge Genetic risk factors Race Personal history of breast cancer Menstrual periods Treatment with DES
Risk Factor you can change lifestyle choices

Nullipara Use of birth control pills Postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT) Use of alcohol Being overweight or obese

BREAST CANCER
Cause: Study

Exact causes of Cancer is UNKNOWN

Lesions to DNA such as genetic mutations Abnormal growth factor- signaling Inherited defects in DNA repair genes

Paget's disease
named after Sir James Paget include redness and mild scaling and flaking of the nipple skin and resembles eczema, and can be itchy

Male Breast Cancer


Men with breast cancer usually have lumps that can be felt men have breast tissue and that they can develop breast cancer.

BREAST CANCER
SYMPTOMS

a lump in the surrounding breast tissue. changes in breast size or shape, skin dimpling, nipple inversion, or spontaneous single-nipple discharge Mastodynia breast pain peau d'orange- pain, swelling, warmth and redness throughout the breast, as well as an orange-peel texture to the skin- inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) Paget's disease of the breast

Diagnostic Test

BREAST CANCER

 common methods screening are: self and clinical breast exams Incision and biopsy) mammography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Genetic testing may also used

BREAST CANCER
Treatment
 surgery when the tumor is localized  adjuvant hormonal therapy (with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor)  Adjuvant therapy Hormone Therapy Chemotherapy Radiotherapy Interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT)

Cancer of the Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

Ovary Uterus Endometrial Uterus Cervical Vagina/Vulva

Ovarian Cancer
is a cancerous growth arising from different parts of the ovary most cases, there are no known causes called a silent killer Ovarian cancer can develop at any age

Ovarian Cancer
Risk factors
Genetic risk factors Increasing age- menopausal women Nullipara Early menstrual cycles- start before 12 years old and late menopausal Use of estrogens or hormone replacement therapy Use of Talc, High fat diet

Ovarian Cancer
Symptoms
pelvic pressure or frequent urination unexplained changes in bowel habits pain or swelling in the abdomen pain during intercourse vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women

Ovarian Cancer
Diagnostic Exams PE pelvic examination CA-125 assay one or more various imaging procedures (MRI, CTs scan, UTZ) a lower GI series, or barium enema diagnostic laparoscopy

Treatment Ovarian Cancer


Treatment Surgery- oophorectomy, bilateral oophorectomy,TAHBSO Chemotherapy- via the lymphatic system or the blood stream Radiation

UTERINE CANCER
Cancer of uterine cavity Divided into two primary forms Endometrial Cancer Cervical Cancer

Endometrial Cancer
develops when the cells that make up the endometrium become abnormal and grow uncontrollably exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer
Risk Factor

CAUSES high levels of estrogen

Age- age of 50 and above Obesity Estrogen replacement therapy Diabetes Hypertension Early first menstruation or late menopause Tamoxifen Genetic factors Nullipara women

Vaginal bleeding

Symptoms of Endometrial cancer

Anemia menorrhagia Lower abdominal metrorrhagia pain or pelvic in premenopausal cramping women in women older Thin white or than 40: extremely clear vaginal long, heavy, or discharge in frequent episodes of postmenopausal bleeding (may indicate premalignant women. changes)

Diagnostic Exams for Endometrial cancer


Pap smear Endometrial curettage Hysteroscopy Endometrial biopsy or aspiration Transvaginal ultrasound TruTest- uses the small flexible Tao Brush to brush the entire lining of the uterus

Treatment for Endometrial cancer


Surgical treatment TAHBSO
Abdominal hysterectomy more prefer than vaginal hysterectomy

Radiation therapy Chemotherapy Hormone therapy

CERVICAL TUMOR/CANCER
a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors. third most common cancer of the female reproductive tract

CERVICAL TUMOR/CANCER
RISK FACTOR:

 Multiple Sex Partner  Smoking  some hormonal contraception,diethylstilbestrol (DES)  a family history of cervical cancer.  Lack of regular Pap tests

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer


Abnormal vaginal bleeding Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before Bleeding after menopause Increased vaginal discharge Pelvic pain Pain during sexual intercourse

CERVICAL TUMOR/ CANCER


PREVENTION Awareness (human papillomavirus) Screening (Pap smear) Vaccination of HPV Use of condoms
DIAGNOSTIC EXAM

Pap smear BiopsyEndocervical curettage cystoscopy Colposcopy CT scan, MRI

CERVICAL TUMOR/ CANCER


TREATMENT

 SURGERY Hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy  Radiation therapy  Chemotherapy  Alternative and Complementary Therapies

Vaginal Cancer
a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina When found in early stages, it can often be cured

Vaginal Cancer
CAUSES The cause of vaginal cancer is not known. Age and exposure to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a womans risk of developing vaginal cancer.

Vaginal Cancer
Risk Factor aged 60 or older exposed to DES while in the mother's womb Having (HPV) infection history of abnormal cells in the cervix or cervical cancer very poor hygiene

Vaginal Cancer
SYMPTOMS oAbnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge not related to menstrual periods. oPain during sexual intercourse. oPain in the pelvic area. oA lump in the vagina.

Vaginal Cancer
DIAGNOSTIC EXAMS

Physical exam and history Pelvic exam- exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. Speculum is also use to visualize Pap smear Biopsy Colposcopy- lighted, magnifying instrument to check the vagina and cervix

Vaginal Cancer
Surgery- vaginectomyremoval of vagina Hysterectomy Radiation therapy Chemotherapy

Reproductive Disorder
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Male TESTICULAR CANCER PENILE CANCER

TESTICULAR CANCER
cancer that develops in the testicles Rare but usually occur between ages 15-35 No known etiology/cause

TESTICULAR CANCER
Risk Factor

major risk factor for the development of testis cancer is cryptorchidism inguinal hernia mumps orchitis sedentary lifestyle hormones

TESTICULAR CANCER
SYMPTOMS a lump loss of sexual activity or interest A burning sensation
specially following physical activity.

Lumbago severely enlarged testicle (tumor)


lower back pain 3 times the original size.

as much as

hydrocele

build-up of fluid in the

scrotum or tunica vaginalis, known as

a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin


sensation

sometimes described as a "heavy"

other testicle may be shrunken in size blood in semen general weak and tired feeling

TESTICULAR CANCER
Diagnostic Exams Treatment  ORCHIECTOMY Scrotum examination-  Surgical removal of one or both testes palpation  Followed by scrotal ultrasound  Adjuvant Treatment CT scans Chemotherapy tumor markers- AFP Radiotherapy alpha1 feto protein, CT scans Beta-HCG, and LDH blood tests Biopsy- inguinal orchiectomy

Penile Cancer
growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis ETIOLOGY exact cause of penile cancer is unknown cancers may be related to chronic exposure to carcinogens associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Penile Cancer
Risk Factor

Symptoms

Person (HPV) infection Smoking phimosis treatment of psoriasis w/ UV light Age AIDS poor hygiene

Redness rashes a lump on the penis Penile lesions ulcerations from irritation allergic reactions Severe- penile papule

Penile Cancer
Diagnostic Exams Penile Examination) CT scan Biopsy

Treatment

SURGERY  Amputation (penectomy) - a partial or total removal of the penis, and possibly the associated lymph nodes RADIATION THERAPY CHEMOTHERAPY BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

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