Telecommunication Networks

Electrical Engineering Department Air University

What is Communication? 

When we know something and want someone else to know we tell them, this is communication. In other words we can say exchange of information or passing of a message by mean of talking or writing is communication

What is Telecommunication?  

It is communication over a long distance. Telecommunication can be by smoke signals, by fires or by drums etc From Electrical Engineering point of view Telecommunications mean sending information by electrical means over distances which can be greater than normal range of sense.


Standards are needed to enable interconnection of systems, equipment and network of different manufacturer, vendors and operators

Telecommunication Standardization bodies 

European Organizations 

The European Telecommunication Standard Institute (ETSI) American National Standard Institute (ANSI)  

American Organizations 

Accreditation body LANs (IEEE802.2) 

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)   

The Electronic Industries Association (EIA)
( American Organization of Electronic Equipment manufacturers 

The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) 

It is not a standard body but a regulatory body

Standardization bodies (contd..) 


Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) (It is regulatory body) 

Frequency Allocation Board (FAB) 

Radio frequencies allocation 


International telecommunication Union (ITU) 

ITU-T ( previously CCITT) 

Works for standards for telecommunication networks Usage of radio frequencies worldwide and specifications of radio systems 

ITU-R ( previously CCIR)  

The International Standard Organization (ISO)/International Electro technical Commission (IEC) 

These joint organizations are responsible for the standardization of Information Technology

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)   

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) refers to the public communication system that provides local, extended local and long distance telephone service. It is composed of telephone exchanges networked together to form a nationwide (and worldwide) telephone communications system. It is public because (theoretically) the system is available to anyone who can afford the service.

PSTN (contd..)
Exchange (Switch) Local Loop (Exchange Switch) Trunk (Exchange Transmission Switch) Network

(Exchange Switch)

PSTN (contd..) 

A Visual Guide

PSTN (contd..) 


A subscriber is anyone who purchases telephone services or access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and pays a monthly fee for this access. The subscriber's phone line is referred to as a subscriber line 

Subscriber Line 

PSTN System 

PSTN consists of: 

Telephone Set Local Loop ( Access Network) Switching System Transmission (Transport) Network Network Management System

PSTN System

Telephone Set 

The telephone set is an interface device that provides the interface to the Public Switched Telephone Network. It performs the following functions: 

converts the sound of your voice to electrical signals ( through microphone) and converts the electrical signals on the line back into the voice (through speaker) of the party you are calling.

Telephone Set ..     

It requests the use of telephone system when the hand-set is lifted It indicates the system is ready for use by receiving a tone called dial tone It send the number of the telephone to be called to the system. The number is initiated by the caller by pressing number keys It indicates an incoming call to the called telephone by ringing bells or other available tones. It signals the system that the call is finished when caller hangs-up the set

Telephone Set .. 


When the handset of the telephone is resting in its cradle, the weight of the handset hold the switch- hook button down and switches are open, this is on-Hook. Circuits between telephone handset and the central offices are open, however the ringer circuit is always connected to the central office. The capacitor C in ringer blocks the flow of DC current, but passes the AC ringing signal The ringer circuit presents a high impedance to speech signals, so it has no effect on them The impedance of the loop is very high 

Rotary Telephone Set

Local Loop

Telephone Set

Telephone Set .. 


When the handset is removed from the cradle, the switch-hook contacts (SH1, SH2) close. This completes the circuit to the exchange and current flows in the circuit. The Off-hook signals tells that some wants to make a call, the exchange returns dial tone to let the caller know that exchange is ready to accept a telephone number The impedance of the loop drops to 600 ohm

Telephone Set .. 

Parts of Telephone set 


converts acoustic into electrical energy. Diaphragms with small containers having carbon grains, exhibit low resistance while being pressed electric magnet produces vibrations in diaphragm according to alternating current proportional to speech. These are used for making or breaking the loop. When caller dials a telephone number, the exchange send a ringing signals to the called subscriber. This function is called ringing. 

Earphone (speaker)  

The Hook-Switch  


Telephone Set .. 

Parts of Telephone set 

Dial (Keypad) 

It is an arrangement in the telephone set used to send telephone numbers to the exchange. There are two types of dialing 

Pulse Dialing Tone Dialing 

The Hybrid 

It converts two wires circuits to four wires and vice versa. It is used to separate incoming speech signals from the outgoing signal

Telephone Set .. 


PSTN Simplified Model (1)

PSTN Simplified Model (2)

The Local Loop   

It is the connection from a telephone company's central office (local Exchange) in a locality to its customers' telephones. The connection is usually on a pair of copper wires called twisted pair, which is a balanced line. One of the wire is called T(TIP) and the other is called R (Ring), which refers to the TIP and Ring parts of the plug used in manual switchboards. The impedance of the loop is 600 Ohm When telephone is on-hook state, TIP is about 0V and RING is about -48 volts

The Local Loop   

When telephone is off-hook state, TIP is about -20V and RING is about -28 volts. Thus potential difference between two wires is about 8 volts During 0ff-hook condition 20-50 mA DC current flows through the loop The actual Bandwidth of the speech signal on the line is 300-3400 Hz. Theoretical BW is 0-4KHz

The Local Loop
The loading coils are used in the loop at regular spacing to flatten the frequency response curve ( decrease attenuation) and thus increase its length.

2-W to 4-W Conversion 

Hybrid Transformer
For short distances, two-way communication is possible on a single pair of wires (bi-directional transmission).  Problems occur however when amplification (in past) or digital regeneration (nowadays) is needed.  Amplifiers or regenerators in the network are uni-directional. A Hybrid Transformer is used to convert a 2-wire circuit at the phone/terminal end to a 4-wire system in the switching network:  Matches the impedance of the two-wire local loop to the network circuit  Provides a loss to signal arriving on the receive path, preventing them from entering the transmit path, which would otherwise cause an echo  In practice signal is connected back, so there is an echo  Echo is severe and disturbing when there is long propagation delay  Echo cancellers are used in network to tackle this problem 

2-W to 4-W Conversion .

2-W to 4-W Conversion .

2-W to 4-W Conversion .

2-W to 4-W Conversion .
Any telephone call undergoes 2W-4W conversions: - from the phone (4W) to the subscriber line (2W) - from the subscriber line (2W) to the network interface (4W)

2W/4W circuits 

4W connections are easy to maintain because transmission direction is independent of each other

2-W to 4-W Conversion . 

Balance network has a balance impedance of ZB. If ZB=ZLine then half the signal goes to the line and half goes to the balance network with little or no coupling (reflection) to the local receiver. But by design, we use ZB{ZLine to create sidetone . 

Reflections from the C.O. return to the station set. Talker hears his/her own voice. Useful because acts (almost subconsciously) as a signal to the talker that the line is live. No sidetone makes the line feel dead and unnatural (IP telephony often sounds like this since there s no sidetone). Today s electronic phones have a small sidetone network within them to create sidetone.

2-W to 4-W Conversion .

Loop Design Goals 

(A) (D.C.) Resistance Limit Requirement 

Keep total line resistance below a target level by choosing the appropriate wire gauges. Historically 1300 ; limit but now ~1700 ;. Keep total signal loss below a target maximum level. North America usually uses 8 dB maximum loss at 1000 Hz. Elsewhere usually uses 7 dB maximum loss at 800 Hz. In principle could mix and match wire gauges in loop makeup to satisfy (A) and (B) at minimum cost of the copper used. Actual practice has been to keep to a single size wire (often 26 gauge) as much as possible (better economically) and add battery boost, range extenders, amplifiers, or load coils as needed. 

(B) (A.C.) Attenuation Limit Requirement 

UniUni-Gauge Design Method 

Loop Resistance design 

How do we determine the target resistance? 

We need a high enough current at the customer premises to 20mA operate the station set (20mA minimum in North America). Use V=IR, with a known battery voltage of 48V. 48V u 20mA x R €p R e 2400 ; total Budget } 400 ; for the battery feed bridge at the C.O. Budget } 300 ; for other miscellaneous wire resistances (e.g. subset wiring, etc.).
@ The subscriber loop s wire resistance must not exceed 1700 ;. 


American Wire Gauge (AWG) Data

Switching System     

A telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls from calling line to the other, the called line, as per the signaling information received from the calling line. The speech channel is connected from the time when the circuit was established to the time when the call is cleared, this is called circuit switching It generates the current on the loop from -48 volt battery which powers telephone. Battery is used to provide back up when main is cut off. -48 volts battery is generally made using four lead acid batteries.
The line feeding voltage was selected to be negative to make the electrochemical reactions on the wet telephone wiring to be less harmful. When the wires are at negative potential compared to the ground the metal ions go from the ground to the wire instead of the situation where positive voltage would cause metal from the wire to leave which causes quick corrosion.

Switching System  

A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make phone calls "work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. The term exchange can also be used to refer to an area served by a particular switch (typically known as a wire center in the US telecommunications industry

Switching System 

Switching System Types
( with reference to speech signal) 

Analog Switching System 

The speech signal is analog. Earlier switching systems were analog, but modern are digital The speech signals are digital 

Digital Switching System 

Switching System 

Switching System Types
( with reference to use) 

Private Branch Exchange (PABX) Public Exchange 

It is a government-regulated public network or privately owned network that crosses into the public network environment 

Local Exchange Toll (Tandem Exchange)

Switching System 

Switching System Types
(with reference to switch control) 

Manual Control Progressive Control Common Control

Switching System 

Manual Control   

Early telephones were operated manually using a jack for each line and two plugs on long flexible wire, the cord, for making connection To make connection, the operator took cord, plugged into jack corresponding to line requesting service Then plugged the other end of the cord pair into correct out-going line jack.

Telephone Switch (contd..)
Manual Control

Telephone Switch (contd..) 

Progressive Control   

Almon B Strowger invented a mechanical (in1887) substitute for the operator which could complete a connection under direct control of calling party The Strowger or Step-by-step switch connects pair of telephones wires by progressive and step-bystep operation of several series of switches operating in tandem. Each operation is under direct control of the dial pulses. 

Strowger step-bystep switching

Telephone Switch (contd..) 

Common Control   

They are software controlled having capacity of thousands of subscribers. They are called Stored Program Control (SPC) Exchanges. In SPC the control functions are integrated in a common control unit They use a new kind of switching technique called Cossbar. Crossbar depends on the crossing or intersection of two points to make a connection. Control signals from transmission lines are detected and used to control the matrix to connect the proper lines for the path from the calling telephone to the called telephone

Telephone Switch (contd..) 

Automatic (common control )Switch

Telephone Switch (contd..) 

Interoffice Trunks

Telephone Switch (contd..) 

Inter call between subscriber served by two different exchanges

Signal Switching in Common Control Exchanges 

Crossbars ( analog switch) 

Speech signals remains analog whereas common control unit is processor based Switching of the signals is carried out using cross-point switches under the control of processor This switching method is also called space switching. 

Time Switching (digital Switch)  

Speech signal is converted into digital using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and time switching and space switching is employed to connect telephone lines. The ITU standard of PCM is named G.711

Pulse Code Modulation 

PCM is a process of converting analog signal into digital. It involves the following steps: 

Sampling Quantizing Encoding

Pulse Code Mod . 


The analog signal is sampled at a rate ( Nyquist rate) twice of the highest frequency contained in the speech signal. This is 8 K samples per second. The time interval between two consecutive samples of a signal is 125 u seconds

Pulse Code Modulation 

Sampling (PAM)



Pulse Code Mod.. 


This is division of the whole range of possible amplitude values into intervals. The signal amplitudes lying in the same interval are considered of same value, which is mid value of the interval


Quantization (uniform)

Pulse Code Mod 


The encoder allocates 8 bit PCM word to each individual sample. Thus bit rate of resultant PCM signal corresponding to each telephone signal is 64 K bits per second.

Pulse Code.. 

Encoding (with non uniform Quantization)

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)    

The 8-bit PCM words of a number of telephone signals can be transmitted consecutively in a repeated cycle. A PCM word of one telephone signal is followed by PCM words of all other telephone signals arranged in consecutive order. This creates a PCM time-multiplex signal. The time interval within which a PCM word is transmitted is known as time slot A bit train containing, One PCM word from every input signal is known as a Frame. In PCM-30 transmission system a frame consists of 32 PCM words

Time Division Multiplexing

PCM Frames 

E1 (European) 

32 channels of 8-bit slots in each frame 30 channels are voice TS16 is used for signaling TS0 contains synchronizing word Frame Time is 125 miroseconds Bit rate is 2.048 M bits sec [ North American Standard] 24 channels of 8-bit slots in each frame Total bits are 193= 8x24+1 Bit rate is 1.544 M bits/s 

T1 ( or DS1) 

General Functions of PCM Codec 

It accept 32 or 24 voice channels depending on E1 or T1 It accepts a serial bit stream demultiplexes the digital information, and performs digital-to-analog conversion. Output is 4-kHz voice channels. The voice channels to be transmitted are filtered ( 3.4 K BW) converted to digital. The output of each channel is 8-bits PCM signal It multiplxes 30 voice channels (for E1), adds signaling and timing bits and transmits at 2.048 M bits per second

PCM Codec

Digital Switching  

The digital switches receives timemultiplex signal formed by TDMing of a group of telephone signal. They establish connection by rearranging 8-bit PCM words of various telephone signals on TDM frames ( Time and/or Space switching ) as directed by call request.

Digital Switching.. 

Time switching 

Time Switch can switch any 8-bit PCM word from the incoming highway ( frame) to any time slot on the outgoing highway. The incoming PCM words are either:
Cyclically written into DATA memory of the time switch from where they are read out as directed by call request. or  Stored and sorted as dictated by call request so that they can be cyclically read out. 

Digital Switching..

Digital Switch

Digital Switch 

Basically, the switching is required to transfer information arriving in a specified time slot (channel) on an incoming TDM link to a specified time slot on an outgoing TDM link. Since an arbitrary connection involves two different physical links and two different time slots, the switching process requires spatial translation (space switching) and time translation (time switching). Thus the basic operation is sometimes referred to as two-dimensional switching. Space switching is achieved with conventional digital logic selector circuits, and time switching is achieved by temporarily storing information in a digital memory or register circuit.

Pulse Dialing 

Local loop is closed and opened according to the dialed digits When dialing plate is rotated clockwise and released, switch is breaking the line current periodically. If digit 0 is dialed loop is made and broken ten times, if 9 is dialed loop is made and broken 9 times and so on. Thus when 0 is dialed ten pulses are sent to exchange and for digit 9 nine pulses are sent. The make time is about 40 millsec and break time is about 60 millisec, so total pulse time is 100 msec Inter-digit pause should be greater than 0.3 seconds. If not current digit may combine with the previous one. Ten digits number takes 6-15 seconds

Pulse ..
Current 25-50 mA 0 mA One Cycle 60 ms 40 ms Time


Disadvantages  Slow  Expensive due to high resolution circuitry  Cannot support new services such as call forwarding

Tone Dialing    

Each digit is represented by the combination of two frequencies, one higher and one lower All the frequencies are in audible range (3003400 Hz) Signaling principle is known as Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signaling Faster than Pulse Dialing ( tales 1-2 seconds for ten digit number) 

Reduces call set up time

Tone Dialing
Upper frequency band 697 Lower 770 frequency 852 band 941 1209 1336 1477
1 4 7 * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 #

Tone Dialing .. 


Quicker: dialing all digits take the same time Less dialing errors Additional push buttons *, # etc for activation of so called supplementary services Tone dialing is also used to control value added services , for example tele-banking The only disadvantage is a user has to remember command sequences in order to use new services 


DTMF Receiver

Semester Project 1 

Design Appliances Control circuit using DTMF enabled Telephone set

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