Group members

. including every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (i.e. amorphous ) structure and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state.Glass It is a non-crystalline solid material. The term glass is usually defined in a much wider sense. Glasses are typically brittle . and often optically transparent.

the basic building block of common glasses. probably from a Germanic word for a transparent. Silica Tetrahedral structural unit of silica (SiO2). lustrous substance.History The history of creating glass can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotam The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. . now in modern Germany. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier . that the late-Latin term glesum originated.

it is not very common due to its elevated glass transition temperature of over 2300 °C. . which lowers the glass transition to about 1500 °C. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). generally obtained from limestone). so lime (calcium oxide (CaO). which is usually undesirable. Normally. the soda makes the glass water soluble. However.Glass ingredients Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass production While fused quartz is used for some special applications. other substances are added to simplify processing. some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability.

LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS : 4. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. HARD GLASS : 3. PYREX GLASS : 5. Types of glasses: 1. PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS : 7. SAFETY GLASS : 8. OPTICAL GLASS : 6. COLOURED GLASS . GLASS FIBRES 9. SODA GLASS 2.The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.

ampoules. soda glass is used for the manufacture of window glass. it is familiar with oven ware. it is more resistant to the action of acids. PYREX GLASS : it is made by fusing a mixture odd sand. it has good chemical laboratory apparatus. 2. 3. o It cracks when subjected to sudden changes of temperature . it is also called soft glass. it is used for making hard glass apparatus. lime. . it is easily attacked by chemicals . the major disadvantage of using this glass is that it is brittle & breaks easily. in home. o It fuses at comparatively low temperatures. carbonates. common glassware etc.10H2O) & alkali. pharmaceutical containers. borax (Na2B4O7. HARD GLASS : it is obtained by fusing potassium carbonate & limestone . mirrors.TYPES OF GLASS & ITS USES SODA GLASS : o It is the cheapest & most common glass.

COLOURED GLASS : these are obtained by adding certain colouring material. . such as metallic oxides. 5. it is used in making wind screens of aeroplanes. bulletproof glass etc. the glass does not break easily under ordinary impact. the 3 layers are joined together by the action of heat & pressure. different additions may produce differenct coloured glasses.4. automobiles. SAFETY GLASS : it is prepared by placing a layer of transparent plastic between the two layers of glass by means of suitable adhesive. & that is why is is known as safety glass. to the molten mass.


Hot end Batch feed (doghouse) of a glass furnace The hot end of a glassworks is where the molten glass is formed into glass products. modern glass container factories are three-part operations: The batch house handles the raw materials. . The furnaces are natural gas .  and forming machines The cold end handles the product-inspection and -packaging equipment.575°C. beginning when the batch is fed into the furnace at a slow. annealing ovens.the furnaces. controlled rate.Glass container factories Broadly.or fuel oil-fired. The hot end handles the manufacture proper . The temperature is limited only by the quality of the furnace¶s superstructure material and by the glass composition. and operate at temperatures up to 1.

called a gob. which is eventually formed into a glass container . The Narrow Neck Press and Blow-production of light weight glass container s The following process are given below Gob Formation In both cases a stream of molten glass. A gob is a specific amount of molten glass. at its plastic temperature (1050°C-1200°C) is cut with a shearing blade to form a cylinder of glass.Forming process Two primary methods of making a glass container: The blow and blow.method used for narrow neck containers only The press and blow -method used for jars and narrow neck containers.

Parison ‡A parison is a hollow and partially formed container that will be blown up like a balloon in the blow mold to form a bottle. ‡From there the parison is transferred to the blow mold where compressed air is used to blow the bottle into its final shape. Container Formation Blow and Blow Process ‡The compressed air blows a cavity into the molten gob in the blank mold of the forming machine thereby creating a perform shape known as a parison. .



‡Reduce weight and variations in the thickness distribution of beer and beverage bottles. ‡ This process is used to manufacture containers with narrow finish diameters (38mm and smaller). .Narrow Neck Press and Blow Process ‡The Narrow Neck Press and Blow process is similar to the wide mouth press and blow except the metal plunger in the blank mold is much smaller in diameter. ‡The introduction of this process has enabled glass manufacturers to increase overall productivity.


Significant reduction in glass weight of up to 33% without adversely affecting the mechanical performance of the container.TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENT The narrow neck press and blow process was introduced to gain better control over glass distribution in the container. There are five major areas of the process which made the NNPB process can be claimed as success These are: ‡Glass composition control ‡Glass conditioning control ‡Machine performance ‡Plunger design and material(Advancing NNPB plunger technology) .

 Even cooling is achieved by annealing. An annealing oven (known in the industry as a Lehr) heats the container to about 580°C then cools it. depending on the glass thickness.Annealing As glass cools it shrinks and solidifies.  Uneven cooling causes weak glass due to stress. . Cold end The role of the cold end is to inspect the containers for defects. package the containers for shipment and label the containers. over a 20 ± 6000 minute period.


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