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Concept of Hashing

a hash table, or a hash map, is a data structure that associates keys (names) with values (attributes).

Example A small phone book as a hash table. .

.Dictionaries Collection of pairs. (key. value) Each pair has a unique key.

Just An Idea Hash table : Collection of pairs. Lookup function (Hash function) .

Hashing Key-value pairs are stored in a fixed size table called a hash table. A hash function f(x) transforms the identifier (key) into an address in the hash table . Each slot holds one record. Each bucket has many slots. A hash table is partitioned into many buckets.

. . . . . .Hash table s slots 0 0 1 1 s-1 . . . . . . . b-1 . . b buckets .

Uses a hash function f that converts each key k into an index in the range [0. . element) is stored in its home bucket table[f[key]]. Every dictionary pair (key. A bucket can normally hold only one dictionary pair. b-1]. Each position of this array is a bucket.Ideal Hashing Uses an array table[0:b-1].

Ideal Hashing Example Pairs are: (22.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 9 .d) [4] [5] [6] [7] (72.c).f) (22.a).e) (33.(3.c) (85.e).d).f) Hash table is ht[0:7].(85.(33.(72. b = 8 (where b is the number of positions in the hash table) Hash function f is key % b = key % 8 Where are the pairs stored? [0] [1] [2] [3] (3.

d) (85.c) This situation is called collision Keys that have the same home bucket are called synonyms 25 and 33 are synonyms with respect to the hash function that is in use 10 .f) (22.c) (3.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Where does (25.g) go? The home bucket for (25.What Can Go Wrong? .e) (33.g) is already occupied by (33.Collision (72.

f) (22.What Can Go Wrong? Overflow (72.e) (33.d) (85.c) (3. collisions and overflows occur together Need a method to handle overflows 11 .a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] A collision occurs when the home bucket for a new pair is occupied by a pair with different key An overflow occurs when there is no space in the home bucket for the new pair When a bucket can hold only one pair.

Overflow handling method. Overflow: there is no space in the bucket for the new pair.) Size (number of buckets) of hash table. To avoid collision (two different pairs are in the same the same bucket.Some Issues Choice of hash function. .

Choice of Hash Function Requirements easy to compute minimal number of collisions A good hashing function distributes the key values uniformly throughout the range. .

7148. K=3205. The Hash function H is defined by H(k) = K(mod m) E. 2345 & No.Some hash functions Division: Choose a number m(PRIME number) larger than the number n of keys in K.g. Of Address = 100( 0 -99) Let m =97 H(3205) = 3205 mod 97 .

g..20.112.Some hash functions Folding: Partition the key k into several parts. then return the address H(k)=123+203+241+112+20=699 .203. and add the parts together to obtain the hash address H(k) = k1+k2+ . +kr e. x=12320324111220...241. partition k into 123.

E. K= 3205.Some hash functions Mid Square: The key k is squared.g. 2345 . Then the Hsh function H is defined byH(k) = l Where l is obtained by deleting digits from both ends of k2 e. k2 = 10 272 025 H(k) = 72 7148.g.

We may handle overflows by: Search the hash table in some systematic fashion for a bucket that is not full.Overflow Handling An overflow occurs when the home bucket for a new pair (key. Linear probing (linear open addressing). Rehashing Eliminate overflows by permitting each bucket to keep a list of all pairs for which it is the home bucket. . element) is full. Chain. Array linear list. Quadratic probing.

.Linear probing (linear open addressing) Open addressing ensures that all elements are stored directly into the hash table. thus it attempts to resolve collisions using various methods. Linear Probing resolves collisions by placing the data into the next open slot in the table.

33. 34. 0. 45 . 7. 28. Home bucket = key % 17.Linear Probing – Get And Insert divisor = b (number of buckets) = 17. 12. 29. 30. 4 6 8 23 7 12 16 28 12 29 11 30 33 0 34 0 45 • Insert pairs whose keys are 6. 23. 11.

“Duplicate entry\n”).key).key)) { fprintf(stderr. exit(1). } } ht[i] = item. “The table is full\n”). if (i == hash_value) { fprintf(stderr. i = hash_value = hash(item. } .Linear Probing (program 8. while(strlen(ht[i]. exit(1). } i = (i+1)%TABLE_SIZE. element ht[]){ int i. item.key. hash_value.key)) { if (!strcmp(ht[i].3) void linear_insert(element item.

Problem of Linear Probing Identifiers tend to cluster together Increase the search time .

h+1.... h+ i2 ...Quadratic Probing Quadratic probing uses a quadratic function of i as the increment (H(x)+i2)%b for H(K) = h For i = 0... 2 -----i. h.e.1. h+4 ...

…. Double hashing is one of the best methods for dealing with collisions. Here Hi is a hash function. If the slot is full. i) = (H1(k) + i H2(k) ) % m . then a second hash function is calculated and combined with the first hash function. H(k. H2. Hm in sequence if collision occurs.Rehashing Rehashing: Try H1.

.Data Structure for Chaining The idea of Chaining is to combine the linked list and hash table to solve the overflow problem.

Hashing with Chains Hash table can handle overflows using chaining Each bucket keeps a chain of all pairs for which it is the home bucket. The chain may or may not be sorted by key 25 .

34.Hash Table with Sorted Chains Put in pairs whose keys are 6.30.45 Home bucket = key % 17. 28.12.11.7. 26 .29.0. 33.23.

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