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Find out moreConcept of Hashing

a hash table, or a hash map, is a data structure that associates keys (names) with values (attributes).

Example A small phone book as a hash table. .

value) Each pair has a unique key. .Dictionaries Collection of pairs. (key.

Lookup function (Hash function) .Just An Idea Hash table : Collection of pairs.

A hash function f(x) transforms the identifier (key) into an address in the hash table . Each slot holds one record. Each bucket has many slots. A hash table is partitioned into many buckets.Hashing Key-value pairs are stored in a fixed size table called a hash table.

. . . .Hash table s slots 0 0 1 1 s-1 . . . . . . . . . . b buckets . b-1 .

Every dictionary pair (key. b-1].Ideal Hashing Uses an array table[0:b-1]. Uses a hash function f that converts each key k into an index in the range [0. A bucket can normally hold only one dictionary pair. Each position of this array is a bucket. . element) is stored in its home bucket table[f[key]].

a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 9 .(3.(72.(33.c) (85.a).c).f) Hash table is ht[0:7].e) (33.Ideal Hashing Example Pairs are: (22. b = 8 (where b is the number of positions in the hash table) Hash function f is key % b = key % 8 Where are the pairs stored? [0] [1] [2] [3] (3.d).e).d) [4] [5] [6] [7] (72.(85.f) (22.

c) This situation is called collision Keys that have the same home bucket are called synonyms 25 and 33 are synonyms with respect to the hash function that is in use 10 .What Can Go Wrong? .c) (3.d) (85.e) (33.g) go? The home bucket for (25.g) is already occupied by (33.Collision (72.f) (22.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Where does (25.

a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] A collision occurs when the home bucket for a new pair is occupied by a pair with different key An overflow occurs when there is no space in the home bucket for the new pair When a bucket can hold only one pair.e) (33.f) (22.What Can Go Wrong? Overflow (72.c) (3. collisions and overflows occur together Need a method to handle overflows 11 .d) (85.

) Size (number of buckets) of hash table. Overflow: there is no space in the bucket for the new pair. To avoid collision (two different pairs are in the same the same bucket. Overflow handling method.Some Issues Choice of hash function. .

.Choice of Hash Function Requirements easy to compute minimal number of collisions A good hashing function distributes the key values uniformly throughout the range.

K=3205. 7148.g. 2345 & No. Of Address = 100( 0 -99) Let m =97 H(3205) = 3205 mod 97 .Some hash functions Division: Choose a number m(PRIME number) larger than the number n of keys in K. The Hash function H is defined by H(k) = K(mod m) E.

241.Some hash functions Folding: Partition the key k into several parts... then return the address H(k)=123+203+241+112+20=699 . partition k into 123. and add the parts together to obtain the hash address H(k) = k1+k2+ .203.. x=12320324111220.112.20.g. +kr e.

E.Some hash functions Mid Square: The key k is squared. 2345 . Then the Hsh function H is defined byH(k) = l Where l is obtained by deleting digits from both ends of k2 e. k2 = 10 272 025 H(k) = 72 7148. K= 3205.g.g.

Rehashing Eliminate overflows by permitting each bucket to keep a list of all pairs for which it is the home bucket. . Chain. Linear probing (linear open addressing). Array linear list. element) is full. Quadratic probing.Overflow Handling An overflow occurs when the home bucket for a new pair (key. We may handle overflows by: Search the hash table in some systematic fashion for a bucket that is not full.

. thus it attempts to resolve collisions using various methods. Linear Probing resolves collisions by placing the data into the next open slot in the table.Linear probing (linear open addressing) Open addressing ensures that all elements are stored directly into the hash table.

Linear Probing – Get And Insert divisor = b (number of buckets) = 17. 30. 45 . 23. 33. 4 6 8 23 7 12 16 28 12 29 11 30 33 0 34 0 45 • Insert pairs whose keys are 6. 29. 34. Home bucket = key % 17. 11. 12. 7. 0. 28.

i = hash_value = hash(item. exit(1). hash_value.Linear Probing (program 8. item.key)) { if (!strcmp(ht[i]. } . } } ht[i] = item.key. element ht[]){ int i.3) void linear_insert(element item. exit(1). “Duplicate entry\n”). } i = (i+1)%TABLE_SIZE. “The table is full\n”).key)) { fprintf(stderr. while(strlen(ht[i]. if (i == hash_value) { fprintf(stderr.key).

Problem of Linear Probing Identifiers tend to cluster together Increase the search time .

.e.. 2 -----i.... h+1.1. h+4 .. h....Quadratic Probing Quadratic probing uses a quadratic function of i as the increment (H(x)+i2)%b for H(K) = h For i = 0. h+ i2 .

Double hashing is one of the best methods for dealing with collisions. ….Rehashing Rehashing: Try H1. i) = (H1(k) + i H2(k) ) % m . H2. then a second hash function is calculated and combined with the first hash function. Here Hi is a hash function. Hm in sequence if collision occurs. H(k. If the slot is full.

.Data Structure for Chaining The idea of Chaining is to combine the linked list and hash table to solve the overflow problem.

The chain may or may not be sorted by key 25 .Hashing with Chains Hash table can handle overflows using chaining Each bucket keeps a chain of all pairs for which it is the home bucket.

0.30.23.Hash Table with Sorted Chains Put in pairs whose keys are 6.45 Home bucket = key % 17.29.12.34. 33.11. 28. 26 .7.

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