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Concept of Hashing

a hash table, or a hash map, is a data structure that associates keys (names) with values (attributes).

.Example A small phone book as a hash table.

value) Each pair has a unique key.Dictionaries Collection of pairs. (key. .

Just An Idea Hash table : Collection of pairs. Lookup function (Hash function) .

A hash function f(x) transforms the identifier (key) into an address in the hash table .Hashing Key-value pairs are stored in a fixed size table called a hash table. A hash table is partitioned into many buckets. Each slot holds one record. Each bucket has many slots.

Hash table s slots 0 0 1 1 s-1 . b-1 . . . . . . . . . b buckets . . . . . .

Each position of this array is a bucket. Every dictionary pair (key.Ideal Hashing Uses an array table[0:b-1]. . Uses a hash function f that converts each key k into an index in the range [0. A bucket can normally hold only one dictionary pair. b-1]. element) is stored in its home bucket table[f[key]].

c).e) (33.f) Hash table is ht[0:7].(3.(72.e).d) [4] [5] [6] [7] (72.(85.f) (22.Ideal Hashing Example Pairs are: (22.d).c) (85.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 9 .a). b = 8 (where b is the number of positions in the hash table) Hash function f is key % b = key % 8 Where are the pairs stored? [0] [1] [2] [3] (3.(33.

c) This situation is called collision Keys that have the same home bucket are called synonyms 25 and 33 are synonyms with respect to the hash function that is in use 10 .g) go? The home bucket for (25.What Can Go Wrong? .Collision (72.f) (22.c) (3.e) (33.g) is already occupied by (33.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Where does (25.d) (85.

d) (85.c) (3.f) (22. collisions and overflows occur together Need a method to handle overflows 11 .What Can Go Wrong? Overflow (72.e) (33.a) [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] A collision occurs when the home bucket for a new pair is occupied by a pair with different key An overflow occurs when there is no space in the home bucket for the new pair When a bucket can hold only one pair.

To avoid collision (two different pairs are in the same the same bucket.Some Issues Choice of hash function.) Size (number of buckets) of hash table. Overflow: there is no space in the bucket for the new pair. . Overflow handling method.

Choice of Hash Function Requirements easy to compute minimal number of collisions A good hashing function distributes the key values uniformly throughout the range. .

g. 7148. 2345 & No. K=3205. Of Address = 100( 0 -99) Let m =97 H(3205) = 3205 mod 97 . The Hash function H is defined by H(k) = K(mod m) E.Some hash functions Division: Choose a number m(PRIME number) larger than the number n of keys in K.

203.20.241..g..Some hash functions Folding: Partition the key k into several parts.. +kr e.112. x=12320324111220. and add the parts together to obtain the hash address H(k) = k1+k2+ . partition k into 123. then return the address H(k)=123+203+241+112+20=699 .

k2 = 10 272 025 H(k) = 72 7148. K= 3205.Some hash functions Mid Square: The key k is squared. E.g.g. Then the Hsh function H is defined byH(k) = l Where l is obtained by deleting digits from both ends of k2 e. 2345 .

element) is full. Linear probing (linear open addressing). .Overflow Handling An overflow occurs when the home bucket for a new pair (key. Array linear list. Chain. Rehashing Eliminate overflows by permitting each bucket to keep a list of all pairs for which it is the home bucket. We may handle overflows by: Search the hash table in some systematic fashion for a bucket that is not full. Quadratic probing.

thus it attempts to resolve collisions using various methods. Linear Probing resolves collisions by placing the data into the next open slot in the table. .Linear probing (linear open addressing) Open addressing ensures that all elements are stored directly into the hash table.

0. Home bucket = key % 17. 4 6 8 23 7 12 16 28 12 29 11 30 33 0 34 0 45 • Insert pairs whose keys are 6. 30. 34. 11. 45 .Linear Probing – Get And Insert divisor = b (number of buckets) = 17. 28. 7. 12. 29. 33. 23.

while(strlen(ht[i]. i = hash_value = hash(item. hash_value.key)) { if (!strcmp(ht[i]. } } ht[i] = item. exit(1). “The table is full\n”). } .3) void linear_insert(element item. exit(1). element ht[]){ int i.Linear Probing (program 8.key)) { fprintf(stderr.key). if (i == hash_value) { fprintf(stderr.key. } i = (i+1)%TABLE_SIZE. “Duplicate entry\n”). item.

Problem of Linear Probing Identifiers tend to cluster together Increase the search time .

. h..Quadratic Probing Quadratic probing uses a quadratic function of i as the increment (H(x)+i2)%b for H(K) = h For i = 0.1... h+1. h+4 .. h+ i2 .e..... 2 -----i.

i) = (H1(k) + i H2(k) ) % m .Rehashing Rehashing: Try H1. H2. …. then a second hash function is calculated and combined with the first hash function. Double hashing is one of the best methods for dealing with collisions. Hm in sequence if collision occurs. H(k. If the slot is full. Here Hi is a hash function.

.Data Structure for Chaining The idea of Chaining is to combine the linked list and hash table to solve the overflow problem.

Hashing with Chains Hash table can handle overflows using chaining Each bucket keeps a chain of all pairs for which it is the home bucket. The chain may or may not be sorted by key 25 .

26 .11.45 Home bucket = key % 17.12.29. 33.30.0.23.Hash Table with Sorted Chains Put in pairs whose keys are 6.7. 28.34.

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